Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Heterocyclic amines are compounds that are formed naturally during cooking of proteinaceous foods such as meat and fish. Various heterocyclic amines can be formed upon heating of especially fish or meat in oils and fats and is sometimes called harmburger carcinogen. Epidemiologic studies have shown that most heterocyclic amines are highly mutagenic (Felton et al., 1984) and aost all of them are also carcinogenic (Sugimura, 1995). The concentration of heterocyclic amines depend on meat type, cooking procedures, pH, water activity, carbohydrate, free amino acids, creatinine, heat and mass transfer, lipid, lipid oxidation, antioxidants (Felton et al., 1997;Jagerstad et al., 1998; Paid et al., 1999; Oz and Maya 2006; Oz et al., 2007).

There is an extensive literature on the preacence of heterocyclic amines in meats cooked at high temperature, but in many of the reported studies the cooking was not well described, analysis method varies and might not be comparable, or samples were cooked to maximise the production of heterocyclic amines and not to be representative of the way meats are usually cooked by the general population in Nigeria. The systematic measurement of heterocyclic amines values in most commonly consumed meat types cooked by representative practices are needed to accurately assess heterocyclic amine exposure in epidemiological studies in Nigeria.

Meat and fish are widely consumed in Nigeria and is likely to be one of the main contributors to heterocyclic amine exposure. Exposure to heterocyclic amine varies depending on the cooking technique and the degree of doneness. In this study heterocyclic amine content of some of the most commonly consumed cuts of meat and fish cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness will be reported. This study also aim to investigate the effects different of different cooking methods (microwave, oven, hot plate, pan frying and barbecuing ) and cooking levels of doneness ( rare,medium, well and very well) on the formation of heterocyclic amines in cu nks of meat and fish.


1.2 Problem Statement

It has been stated that human exposure to heterocyclic amines is influenced not only by the type of food and cooking method but also by portion size and intake frequency (Skog,2004). Hence, there is need to determine the effects of cooking techniques and levels of the formation of heterocyclic amines in meat and fish.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of cooking techniques and level of formation of Heterocyclic amines in meat and fish.


1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are heterocyclic amines?
  2. What type of food can they be found ?
  3. What are the factors that can influence their formation ?
  4. What are the types of cooking techniques to be employed ?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study gives a clear insight into the effects of cooking techniques and levels on the formation of heterocyclic amines in meat and fish. The findings and reendations of this research will help consumers be aware of the hazard associated with consumption of meat and fish and necessary safety steps to consider.


1.6 Scope of the study

The research focuses on the effect of cooking techniques and levels on the formation of heterocyclic amines in meat and fish in Nigeria.


Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish


Disclaimer

This research material “Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Effects Of Cooking Techniques And Levels On The Formation Heterocyclic Amines In Meat And Fish” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.