The Effects Of Consumerism In Marketing Of Fake / Counterfeit Drugs In Nigeria

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

The Effects Of Consumerism In Marketing Of Fake / Counterfeit Drugs In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effects of consumerism in marketing of fake/counterfeit drugs in Nigeria. To achieve this, five significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of selected hospitals in Aba main park, Aba, Abia State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 70 respondents while 55 were received and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage, while the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria is low. Also the entrenching of consumer protection laws will encourage/increase the intensity of the consumer protection movement in Nigeria. And fake drug proliferation has a negative impact on consumers and economy at large. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that due to the complexity of the drug production and distribution system, there is no single technique that can eliminate the public health threat posed by fake pharmaceuticals. As such, a layered strategy is fundamental, involving a wide array of inter-agency actors from within and outside the government; enhanced cooperation between international bodies and improved partnership with legitimate private supply chain to help reduce the prevalence of fake drugs in Nigeria. Immediate action would include: Increased awareness on the counterfeiting of drugs to the public; reduction in the importation of drugs and increased local production of drugs which would make drugs cheaper and readily available.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Consumerism is a phenomen on that is limited to the relationship of markets with their consumers. It is a term that have various meaning depending on who is directly involved. But to the consumers himself , it is an organized movement of consumers, government and concerned citizens aimed at protecting them from practices that infringe upon their rights . Generally, consumerism is a pro-marketing, spirited efforts by manufactures, consumers and government to protect consumer from the numerous exploitations arising from consumption of marketed goods/ services.

Protection from consumers was initially termed consumerism, that is protecting the interest of buyers of goods against defective, poor quality and dangerous products. However, current discourse and strict application of the term now associate consumerism prejoratively with the tendency of people to identify strongly with the products they consume with passion, especially goods with commercial brand.

Consumerism has been accumulating momentum for over 30years in U.S and Europe and its believers asserts that all consumers has a basic right to products that are safe in use, effective to its use, economical, reliable , honestly labelled and advertised ,They have been very proactive in seeing that the “Rights” of consumers are guaranteed either by the firms selling the products or by the government of the country.

The historical declaration of late president J.F Kenedy on 15th March 1962 when he enunciated the four basic consumer rights that needs to be protected (Rights To Safety, Rights To Choice, Right To Information And Right To Seek Redress) proves that consumers cannot determine the safety and quality of manufactured products on his own but has to rely on government to protect him, particularly in the absence of a direct contractual agreement between him and the manufacturer.

President Kenedy’s Landmark declaration was not only adopted by the United nations general assembly but was also expanded to include, Rights To Education, Right To Representation, Right To Basic Needs And Right To Healthy Environment. Thus in the United Nations guidelines for consumer protection as adopted 9th April 1985, member countries were called upon to develop, strengthen and maintain a strong and active consumer protection policy.
In Nigeria, successive governments made appropriate legal and institutional provisions for consumer protections and regularly up-graded the legal and enforcement provisions as political, scientific, technological and industrial development dictated. The up-grading of the health protection status over the years resulted in the establishment of the NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) in 1992. NAFDAC assumed the prominence of the foremost consumer protection agency of government because the product it regulate are vital to the health, social and economic well being of the consumer. It primary objective is to promote and protect public health, and they are fully empowered to regulate the control of Importation, Exportation, Manufacture, Advertisement, Distribution, Sale And Use Of Drugs, Processed Foods, Bottled Water, Chemicals And Cosmetics in order to ensure that safe, quality drugs and related products are available to the public.

Drugs and related products proliferation is a global public health problem because the effect can be felt from both the country of manufacture to the recipient countries. Hence, national measures for combating them in the countries might be insufficient because of the advanced sophistication of those who manufacture and sells them (Bates, 2008).

Nigeria is not an exception in the problem of fake/counterfeit drugs till date. It poses a great danger to consumers and the society at large. Protecting consumers from fake drugs is one of the major tasks facing the countries. It is the greatest evil of our time and the highest weapon of terrorism against public health, as well as an act of economic sabotage. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. The evil of fake drugs is worse than the combined scourge of malaria, HN/AIDS and armed robbery put together. This is because malaria can be prevented, HIV/AIDS can be avoided and armed robbery may kill a few at a time but fake/counterfeit drugs kills in mass, anybody can be a victim.
Fake/counterfeit drugs have embarrassed our health care providers and ended the confidence of the public on our health care delivery system. The development has led to treatment failures, organ dysfunctions/damage worsening of chronic diseases and death of many Nigerians. This situation become so bad that even when patients were treated with genuine antibiotics, they no longer respond due to resistance induced by previous intake of fake antibiotics.
Local drug manufacturing become unattractive due to unfair competition. Many multinational companies diverted and left Nigeria out of frustration e.g Sandoz, Boehringer, Boots etc. Made in Nigeria drugs were officially unaccepted in other West Africa countries eg Ghana, Sierra Leone etc.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the pace at which business activities are increasing especially marketing of drugs is on the high side and knowing the expectation of a Nigeria business men, they are only concerned in making fast or quick profit, not minding the quality of their products and well being of their consumers.

Hence, the problem of marketing fake/counterfeit drugs have affected the credibility of the health care providers and ended the confidence of consumers on our health care delivery system. It is the greatest evil of our time and the highest weapon of terrorism against public health as well as an act of economic sabotage. It is an ill wind that blows nobody good.

Marketing of fake drugs have exerted very harmful effects on consumers resulting to illnesses, disabilities and even death, anyone can be a victim.

Some of the incidences have resulted even among children because most times consumers do not know the quality of what they are buying or taking. Again, the rate of illiteracy in Nigeria is very high that majority of consumers are virtually un-informed and even when they know about all these bad practices of marketers, finds it difficult or are not opportune as to where or whom to voice out their complaints and feelings.

This makes it imperative that there is need to intensity efforts in fake drugs eradification in Nigeria to enable consumers be more protected and also to educate and inform the public on the essence of consumer protection in order to join in the fight against it.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study includes the following:

  1. To find out the prospects and level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria.
  2. To bring out measures/tools that will help to support encourage/increase the intensity of the movement
  3. To enlighten the public more on their “Rights” against fake drug marketing.
  4. To highlight the impact of fake drug proliferation on consumers and economy at large.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria?
  2. Will the entrenching of consumer protection laws, encourage/increase the intensity of the consumer protection movement in Nigeria?
  3. Does fake drug proliferation have a negative impact on consumers and economy at large?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The study will test the validity of the following hypothetical statement.

  • H01: The level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria is not low.
  • Ho2: The entrenching of consumer protection laws, will not encourage/increase the intensity of the consumer protection movement in Nigeria.
  • H03: Fake drug proliferation has no negative impact on consumers and economy at large.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

  1. This study will examine the level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria is not low.
    • Bring out measures/tools that will help to support encourage/increase the intensity of the movement
    • Enlighten the public more on their “Rights” against fake drug marketing.
    • Highlight the impact of fake drug proliferation on consumers and economy at large.
  2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, NDLEA, Tobacco consumers and academia.

1.7. Scope of the Study

This study will cover the effect of consumerism in marketing of fake counterfeit drugs in Niger. The study will further delve into finding out the prospects and level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria; bringing out measures/tools that will help to support encourage/increase the intensity of the movement; enlightening the public more on their “Rights” against fake drug marketing; and highlighting the impact of fake drug proliferation on consumers and economy at large. Further, the staff of selected hospitals in Aba main pack, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Financial constraint, was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.9 Definition of Terms

Consumer:

Any individual who consumes or utilizes products or services is referred to as a consumer

Consumer Protection:

Consumer protection refers to protecting consumers’ interests and rights.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of consumerism in marketing of fake/counterfeit drugs in Nigeria. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effects of consumerism in marketing of fake/counterfeit drugs in Nigeria.The study is was specifically set to; find out the prospects and level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria, bring out measures/tools that will help to support encourage/increase the intensity of the movement, enlighten the public more on their “Rights” against fake drug marketing, and highlight the impact of fake drug proliferation on consumers and economy at large.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of selected hospitals in Aba main park, Aba, Abia State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The level of consumer protection movement in Nigeria is low.
  2. The entrenching of consumer protection laws will encourage/increase the intensity of the consumer protection movement in Nigeria.
  3. Fake drug proliferation has a negative impact on consumers and economy at large.

5.4 Recommendation

Due to the complexity of the drug production and distribution system, there is no single technique that can eliminate the public health threat posed by fake pharmaceuticals. As such, a layered strategy is fundamental, involving a wide array of inter-agency actors from within and outside the government; enhanced cooperation between international bodies and improved partnership with legitimate private supply chain to help reduce the prevalence of fake drugs in Nigeria. Immediate action would include: Increased awareness on the counterfeiting of drugs to the public; reduction in the importation of drugs and increased local production of drugs which would make drugs cheaper and readily available; increased tax for drug importers to discourage importation; legal gap analysis and review of laws regulating manufacture, sale and distribution of drugs; passing into law stiffer penalties for drug offenders consistent with the magnitude of crime; strict monitoring of premises involved in sale of drugs; monitoring of the supply chain at each stage of drug distribution; development of a transparent and verifiable chain of custody from point of production to point of sale; enhanced early authentication procedure in validation of manufacturing sites and formal registration/validation of all importers from a public health perspective; and enhanced enforcement to inhibit the growth of counterfeiters.


Project Material Download

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 120 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: The Effects Of Consumerism In Marketing Of Fake / Counterfeit Drugs In Nigeria

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.