The Effect Of Classroom Management And Control On The Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students
This research work has been designed to investigate the problems affecting classroom management and control and identify the solution facing the problem. This is to enable the researcher suggest measure that would solve the problem affecting classroom management and control. Chapter one, deals with the background purpose and significance of the study, in chapter two, the researcher carries out the literature review by reading book and browsing work relating to the problem of various writers and researcher and their opinion appears to level support to my findings, chapter three deals with the various techniques adopting in getting fact of the study. The use of questionnaire and interviewing methods were adopted to get the information required. The population of the study is made up of one hundred and twenty students and twenty teachers. Data collected from questionnaire were converted into figures and percentages which were arranged in tabular form. These were then discussed in chapter four and some recommendations were made by the researcher.
1.1 Background of the Study
This classroom management and control deals with how things are done, its structure, procedure and routines to the point of becoming rituals.
When procedure are explained to and practiced by students it is periodically reinforced by practicing, classroom management and control. When procedures are learned, practiced and reinforced, instructions becomes efficient. This is the foundation of any classroom management and is a prime responsibility of the teacher.
It is believed that the teacher is the biggest influence on how well students behave in a classroom. This means that it is not the quality of the students, the involvement of the parents, or the administration that make the most impact, but the teacher’s attitude. This is premised on the fact that some students tend to live up to the teacher’s expectations. In this instance when the teacher expects great things from them, they would surely rise to the challenge. The corollary is that when you expect poor classroom behaviour they would also meet that challenge. It must be appreciated that effective classroom management is probably the most difficult aspect of a teacher’s duty and role. It is opined by Verstrate (2011) that, “it is not simply to teach curriculum content but it is to also guide, direct and empower students to govern their own behaviour so that their life within a social setting can be an enjoyable and productive one.”
Classroom management discipline is the responsibility of the student discipline has to do with appropriate behavior. To make classroom conducive for learning, the school is not to be focused on a view but rather being together contrasting opinion and attitudes so that the teacher can be given the way on which it is to be based on his conclusion.
When teacher takes up the role of discipline students, they deprive young people of the opportunity of becoming more responsible. A far more responsible. A far more effective approach is for students to develop procedures to help redirect irresponsible impulse. In addition, the usual approach is for adult to impose some of the punishment when this occurs, students have no ownership in the decision to a victim hood mentality and have negative feeling towards the imposers.
Traditionally, teachers are encouraged to believe that the learning environment must be orderly and quiet. For some principals, a quiet classroom means effective teaching. With the growing movement toward cooperative learning, however, more teachers are using activities in which students take an active role. Sharing ideas and information with various activities occurring at the same time can make for noisy classrooms. But it would be a mistake to conclude that in such classrooms students are not learning (Carr et al. 1998)There are some pointed out four rules of classroom management and these for rules can be applied in the classroom for effective teaching and learning they are:
RULE ONE: Get them In: – the process of getting them can be seen to involve the phrases of the very beginning of the classroom situation.
RULE TWO: Get on with it: this refers to the main part of the lesson, the nature of content and the manner of its presentation
RULE THREE: Get on with them: here the teacher develops good relationship with their pupils, by fostering mutual and trust and respects. To do this sensitively, the mood of the class as whole.
This obviously means knowing track of what is who/ whom on.
RULE FOUR: Get them out: optimistically, the teacher here consider two phrases of concluding a lesson and dismissing the class.
Also this study will be of great help and immense benefit to the government and to the ministry of education whose primary objectives is to see students as the future teachers and leaders of tomorrow. It would also be a great significance to the ministry of education and teachers as well as their school authorities who deals directly with students on how to prevent classroom management problems among students in secondary school. On the other hand since continuous research is this field is not rules out, the findings of the study would like to use it as a base for future investigation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Classroom and control and management contributes to the building of discipline in a school and a pupil are students who lack control allowed to misbehaves is there any significant different between students who come late to school and those who come to school early. Are there any significant differences between the controls of groups that work cooperatively? Nowadays, teachers face many challenges such as: the spread of behavioral and academic problems that threaten the educational system in most of the schools.
Un‐conducive learning environment in the public schools has posed serious problems to students’ academic performance over many decades ago. This trend has been on the increase on daily basis. Its prevalence has attracted the concern of the teachers, parents, the guidance counselors and many researchers. Effective classroom management has been discussed extensively at educational seminars and workshops, with efforts aimed at bringing lasting solution to the problem of students’ poor academic performance encountered in secondary schools. In most cases, classroom teachers become tired of using verbal instruction in attempts to establish effective classroom management, but this method alone does not produce desired results. Many teachers use corporal punishment to instill fear and discipline in the classroom yet there are prevalence of disruptive behaviors in the classroom. A lot of teachers waste time and energy in intensive classroom supervision so that the classroom climate could be conducive for lessons. Some classroom teacher’s delegates authority to deserving prefects such as time – keeper, noise prefects, class prefects, etc. to share in the responsibility of ensuring a conducive learning atmosphere in the classroom. These methods are adopted by teachers to enable the classroom become conducive enough for effective teaching/learning process and to facilitate higher academic performance of the students.
These problems have direct influence on the learning process. This obviously states that the classroom management cannot be over looked in teaching and learning situation.
In line with this, the purpose of this research is to carry out a survey of management problems among secondary school s in ova north east local government area of Edo state.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The study of the effect of classroom management in the academic performance of secondary school students in the academic performance of secondary school students, a case study of selected secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State is aimed at achieving discipline among student in that locality.
- To help educate teachers on how the classroom needs to be conducive for students in order for teaching to be effective.
- This study will also seek possible way of preventing these management problems among student in secondary by exposing them to simple classroom management control and rules.
- To provide solution to the problem affecting the classroom in secondary school in Edo State.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The following null and alternate hypotheses were formulated:
- H0: Verbal instruction does not significantly influence students’ academic performance.
H1: Verbal instruction significantly influence students’ academic performance.
- H0: Corporal punishment does not significantly influence students’ academic performance.
H2: Corporal punishment significantly influence students’ academic performance.
- H0: Instructional supervision does not significantly influence students’ academic performance.
H3: Instructional supervision significantly influence students’ academic performance.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that the study will help to enrich the teaching of classroom management and control in schools.
The researcher is interested in the study of classroom management and control because whatever happens the classrooms have a direct behaving to the performance of the students.
There should be discipline among the students to ensure executive teaching and learning. Discipline is important, it involves all the students in the school time table and also includes the teacher’s education officer’s i.e. teacher’s education officer’s i.e. teachers, parents, communities, policy makers in one way or the other, and for example the following generalization can be made about the students attending school they are well glad, happy and well nourished.
Finally, findings from the study will aid teachers in the management and control of their classroom.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study centers on the effect of classroom management in the academic performance of secondary school students in the academic performance of secondary school students, a case study of selected secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State is aimed at achieving discipline among student in that locality. In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some limitations which limited the scope of the study;
In most cases the staffs often feels reluctance over providing required information required by the researcher. This result in finding information where the structured questionnaires could not point out.
The researcher, being of full time student spent most of her time on other academic activities such as test, class work, assignment, examination etc which takes average focus from this study.
Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
1.7 Definition of Terms
This refers to the bad conduct or behavior of students who does who does not obey the rules and regulation of a school.
This is refers to graduated teachers in education NCE holder and holders of educational diplomas.
These consist of unqualified teachers appointed to teach in primary and secondary or tertiary (as the case may be) probably without formal teacher’s education.
A person who answers question during an interview or who fills the questionnaire for his or her researcher work.
A person undergoing a course of study and instruction at secondary school or in any tertiary institution.
Parents Teachers Association:
This refers to an organization where the parents of the students and teachers in that particular school discuss matters affecting and concerning the school and as well as the students.
This happens when the parents of the students are separated or divorced, so that the children now lack proper care and security.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at finding out the impacts of classroom management and control on academic performance, thus the topic “the effects of classroom management and control on the academic performance of secondary school students”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with classroom management and control on academic performance in Nigeria.
The findings of this study revealed that most teachers in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State believed that classroom discipline significantly influence students’ academic achievement. The findings is in line with Ada (2004) who reported that classroom discipline is a function of direction between teachers and students that bring about self-control and respect for authority. The findings of the study also reveals that classroom motivation significantly influence students’ academic achievement. The result agreed with Mallum and Haggai (2000) who opined that with motivation the work of the teacher is made easier, that motivated students are eager to learn, willing to undertake learning activities and attend lesson regularly and punctually.
The findings of study are in line with Whitakar (2004) who reported that the main factor in the classroom is not the student, but the teacher. He further added that Great teachers have high expectations for their students, but even higher expectations for themselves. Similarly Bolman and Deal,(2002) evaluated that good teacher as well as good teaching positively influences academic performance of student. Students are influenced by perceptions of their teachers’ evenhandedness, competence, caring and support as well as the nature of the teacher student relationship that outcome in (Stipek, 2002), this conclusion is supported by present findings.
From the findings of this study it should be noted that, the “ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behaviour of their students is critical to positive educational outcomes” (Oliver and Reschly, 2007). The conclusion of this study are also in support of Ames et.al,(1998) Students who perceived an emphasis on mastery goals in the classroom reported using more effective strategies, preferred challenging tasks, had a more positive attitude toward the class, and had a stronger belief that success follows from one’s effort. Students who perceived performance goals as salient tended to focus on their ability, evaluating their ability negatively and attributing failure to lack of ability. Koth et al., (2008).Researchers have examined the influence of various classroom characteristics on student academic performance. Teacher beliefs, teacher instructional practices, and classroom interactions between teachers and students have been positively associated with student academic performance, is also in support with the present study. Present hypothesis are partially confirmed hence it is concluded that some of the classroom factor played significant role in achievement motivation
To ameliorate the challenge posed by ineffective classroom management, there is the need for “teacher professional management”. Supporting this position, Baker (2005) argued that, “although surveys indicate that experienced teachers have fewer concerns regarding classroom management, such surveys may be less an indication that teachers learn over time how to manage classrooms effectively and more a result of the fact that many teachers who did not learn classroom management skills simply have left the profession”(Baker, 2005). He therefore, argued that the solutions include, improved teacher preparation and professional development in classroom management.
Finally, effective teachers have been able to appreciate that behaviour problems are at the lowest ebb in classrooms where the children are actively involved and interested. The teacher also appreciates the children for who they are, where they are from and what they can contribute. Effective teachers are also aware that they should know the background of their students so as to appreciate non-academic factors which may affect their behaviour, and, consequently class participation and learning (Heijnen- Maathuis, 2011). It is the opinion of the writers that effective classroom management would likely influence the academic performance of the students, consequently guaranty the right students outcomes desired by the school.
- There is the need for teachers to be exposed to different skills on classroom management. This could be through in-service trainings, conferences/seminars etc.
- The right school climate should be provided where teachers can affect the right classroom management practices without inhibition.
- There should be feed-back on every aspect of teachers’ evaluation. This will enable them identify area of strengths and weaknesses.
- Students with consistent behavioural challenges should be referred to the school counselor for necessary support.
- Only qualified (trained) teachers should be allowed in the school setting. Thus, the aspect of professionalizing teaching should be given the prompt consideration it deserves.
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