Effects Of Class Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of History In Secondary School

History Education Project and Seminar Material

Effects Of Class Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of History In Secondary School


Abstract


The large population of students in history class are enough for ineffectiveness of the learning and teaching of history in junior secondary school. Research was made in this exercise to investigate the effect of class-size in effective teaching and learning of history in some selected secondary schools in Shagamu Metropolis. Moreover, questionnaire was the instrument used to obtain the necessary information and data. The information and data collected was analyzed using simple percentage and results were presented in tables and pie-chart to consider the hypothesis raised. The research findings concluded that group method of teaching is the best method when teaching history in a large class-size and that the teacher’s behavior have roles to play in students achievement.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Research work appears to be making an increasing impact on everyday lives. In public discussion today the evidence of this fact was considered to be important. We are unlikely to accept authoritative statements without some explanations to prove the statement. Every profession requires its members to acquire certain specialized abilities and teaching is no exception.

Among the specialized abilities expected of the classroom teacher is to have some certain behaviours which promote both the learning of the subject (History) and the student’s attitude. Teacher’s classroom interaction can be analyzed in order to obtain information on how to be effective with regards to the teaching method from which to develop and control their behaviour in a continuing programme of self development. There is the need for using different methods in teaching different groups of students. For instance, in teaching History the teachers needs to have interaction session for his student and therefore in the class, demonstration method should be applied rather than lecture. However, the only way to find out the usefulness of the different methods is to observe their behaviour in different ability level in selection of methodology of teaching the teacher has to bear in his mind.

How should History be taught? What teaching methods would be suitable in the teaching of History? History in particular, what is the role of small group discussion; the class-room demonstration and audio-visual aid in teaching and learning of History. There are basically several methods of observing History teachers, two of these are interaction analysis and topological studies (step by step observation based on record). Its generally accepted that an application and understanding of education events are essentials to any analysis of educational process. Teacher should analyze their classroom interaction in order to obtain effective learning, especially their own actions during the process of teaching and learning.

Babajide, 2010 reveal that History teaching is suppose to be result oriented and students centred, and this can only be achieved when students are willing and the appropriate methods and resources in the students. Students by nature are curious; They need to be actively involved in the learning process in which they are continuously equipping, testing, special teaching and building their own personal construct and knowledge that is only by personalizing such knowledge that it becomes valid, meaningful and useful to them. In History, students need to actively construct their own personal awareness and meaning to substantiate the argument, Usman (2009) remarked that brain is not a passive consumer of information and to learn with understanding, a learner must actively construct meaning of what to be learned.

Despite the prime position, History occupies in our educational system and the efforts made by researchers to enhance performance, students’ performance on History in general are still low. Some of the reasons identified for this failure are laboratory inadequately, teachers attitude, examination malpractice, time constraint for conduction of practices, non-coverage of syllabus, class size, non-professionalism and environment. History practical in schools is aimed at giving the students the opportunity to gain meaningful learning, acquire appropriate skills and attitudes that enable them live and contribute to the development of society.

We often think that learning occurs in proportion to class-size; the smaller the class, the more students learn. However, while research shows that small classes provide more opportunities for feedback and discussion than large classes, as well as greater students satisfaction, it does not suggest that class size is necessarily a correlate of student learning. What counts is not the size of the class, but the quality of the teaching. Research suggests that the key to effective instruction and student learning, regardless of class size, is engaging student in active learning.


1.2 Statement of Problem

There are a lot of problems facing the teaching and learning of History in Secondary Schools but the researcher is concern about the large class size and it impact in teaching and learning of History in some selected secondary schools in Shagamu metropolitan of Ogun State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of the research work was to find out the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning History in junior secondary school in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun state.

  1. To find out the effect of large class size in teaching and learning of History.
  2. To evaluate how large class size has influenced academic performance of students in junior secondary school.
  3. To know between large class size and small class size which is effective for teaching and learning History.
  4. To know how convenient large class size is to the students learning History.
  5. To know how convenient large class size is to the teachers teaching History.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What is the effect of large class sizes in teaching and learning of History?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between large class size and academic performance of students in History?
  3. Is there convenience in learning History in a large class size?
  4. Is there any convenience in teaching History in a large class size?
  5. Is small class size more efficient and effective for teaching and learning of History in junior secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between class size and the effective teaching of history.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between class size and the effective teaching of history.

1.6 Significant of the Study

The study is aimed at finding out the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning of History as a subject which need high level of concentration by the teacher and the students whenever the subject is to be taught. Large class size will not be too good for teaching and learning of History due to the fact that students are of different home or family background which make their character different from one another. Some students want to learn while others are not ready to know with large class size, the teacher may not how the capability to control the class but with small class size, no matter how the teachers can control such a class size. This study will be of significance to educators, curriculum planners and school management to know now to go about the problem of large class size.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The research work was limited to some selected secondary schools in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun State, where two(2) secondary schools were used for the study namely;

  1. Remo Secondary Schools Shagamu.
  2. Soyindo Community High School, Shagamu.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Class size

Class size refers to the number of students a teacher faces during a given period of instruction.

History subject

This is a branch of knowledge that records and explains past events. Events that form the topics of a history.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning History in junior secondary school in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun state.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of class size in effective teaching and learning History in junior secondary school in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun state.The study is was specifically set to find out the effect of large class size in teaching and learning of History, evaluate how large class size has influenced academic performance of students in junior secondary school, know between large class size and small class size which is effective for teaching and learning History, know how convenient large class size is to the students learning History, and know how convenient large class size is to the teachers teaching History

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areteachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Shagamu metropolis of Ogun state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Large class sizes have negative effect on the teaching and learning of History.
  2. There is a significant relationship between large class size and academic performance of students in History.
  3. There is no convenience in learning History in a large class size.
  4. There is no convenience in teaching History in a large class size.
  5. Small class size is more efficient and effective for teaching and learning of History in junior secondary school.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Policy makers should consider as a matter of priority the issue of increased funding of secondary school education in Nigeria. Increased funding will help to ameliorate problems facing academic performance in secondary schools.
  2. School supervisors and inspector should concentrate more on the number of students in each class and avoid overcrowding in classes.

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