The Causes And Effects Of Cholera Among Children
This research work was designed to examine and analyze the causes and effects of cholera during raining season in Benin City. Seven (7) research questions were formulated and questionnaires were administered to one hundred and fifty (150) respondents in order to gather data for the research. Results showed that poor environment sanitation leads to cholera outbreak, washing of hands before eating helps to prevent or reduce the cholera outbreak, also drinking and bathing with contaminated water leads to cholera infection and a poorly kept toilet also causes cholera outbreak etc. recommendations were indicated which include that, government should swing into action by providing various measures in other to prevent and reduce cholera disease in the country and in Benin City. Our water should be properly treated by adding chlorine to it before drinking and bathing with it. We are also advice to keep clean areas where food are prepared and these food should be properly covered to avoid the cholera outbreak, mothers are also advice to wash their children clothes with soap and clean water and hands should be washed after taking care of sick people to avoid the risk of the disease.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background to the study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
- 1.6 Limitation of the study
- 1.7 Definition of terms
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and sampling techniques
- 3.6 Validation of Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
- 3.8 Method of Data Collection
- 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Data Analysis, Results and Interpretation
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background To The Study
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139( Riyan 2004 & WHO 2010). The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission is primarily through consuming contaminated drinking water or food. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Every year there is an estimated 3-5 million cholera cases and 100,000-120,000 deaths due cholera. The short incubation period of two to five days, enhance the potentially explosive pattern of out breaks (Faruque 2008 and WHO 2010). Cholera transmission is closely linked to inadequate environmental management. Typical at-risk areas include peri-urban slums, where basic infrastructure is not available, as well as camps for internally displaced people or refugees, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are not met. The consequences of a disaster – such as disruption of water and sanitation systems, or the displacement of populations to inadequate and overcrowded camps – can increase the risk of cholera transmission should the bacteria be present or introduced.
Epidemics have never arisen from dead bodies. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of social development. Recently, the reemergence of cholera has been noted in parallel with the ever-increasing size of vulnerable populations living in unsanitary conditions (Emch 2008 and WHO, 2010).
Two serogroups of v. cholera – 01 and 0139 – causes out breaks (Alexander 2008). v. cholera 01 causes the majority of outbreak, while 0139 -first indentified in Bangladash in 1992 –is confined to South-East Asia. Non-01 and non-0139 v. cholera can cause mild diarrhea but dot not generate epidemics. The bacteria are transmitted via contaminated drinking water or food. Pathogenic v. cholera can survive refrigeration and freezing in food supplies. (Reildl et al 2002) The dosage of bacteria required to cause an infection in healthily volunteers via oral administration of living vibrios is greater than 1000 organisms (Hartely 2006 ). After consuming an antacid, however, cholera development in most volunteers after consumption of only 100 cholera vibrios experiments also show that vibrios consumed with food are more likely to cause infection than those from water alone (Finkelstein 1996). Cases tend to be clustered by location as well as season, with most infections occurring in children ages 1-5 years (WHO 2010).
Cholera is severe water-born infectious disease caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae. In 2005, 131,943 cases including 2,272 deaths have notified from 52 countries. The year was marked by a particular significant series of outbreaks in West Africa, which affected 14 countries and accounted for 58% of all cholera cases world-wide (WHO 2006). In the same year Nigeria had 4,477 cases and 174 deaths. There was reported case of cholera in 2008 in Nigeria in which 429 death out of 6,330 cases. More so, 2,304 cases in Niger State in which 114 were reported death in 2008 (NBS 2009). Recent years have seen a strong trend of cholera outbreak in developing countries, including among others, those in India (2007), Iraq (2008), Congo (2008), Zimbabwe (2008-2009), Haiti (2010), Kenya (2010). Koko in Edo State (1989). In Nigeria, according to UN figure, 1,555 people have died since January and 38,173 cases have been reported. The figure is more than four times the death toll the government reported in August (Guardian. 2010)
Cholera is a disease characterized by profuse diarrhea accompanied with a severe dehydration and loss of electrolyte (Colwell and Huq, 1994), caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, a serologically diverse, environmental, and gram-negative rod bacterium (Li et al., 2002). In the absence of appropriate treatment, there is a high mortality rate. Cholera is a major public health concern because of its high transmissibility, death-to-case ratio and ability to occur in epidemic and pandemic forms (Kaper et al., 1995). Cholera is responsible for an estimated death of 120,000 globally every year (WHO, 2001), and still continues to be a scourge worldwide covering all continents. In developing countries with endemic areas, cholera is still very significant with incidence of more than five million cases per year (Tauxe et al., 1994; Lan and Reeves, 2002). The explosive epidemic nature and the severity of the disease and the potential threat to food and water supplies have prompted the listing of V. cholerae as an organism of biological defense research (Zhang et al., 2003). In an epidemic, the great majority of cases can be recognized by clinical diagnosis easily and a bacteriological diagnosis is often not required.
Cholera is endemic in Nigeria (Falade and Lawoyin, 1999) and epidemiological features (Utsalo et al., 1991, 1992; Eko et al., 1994; Hutin et al., 2003) have been reported from various parts of the country with investigations on possible sources of outbreaks. Outbreaks of cholera had been reported from various States in Nigeria such as Ogun, Edo, Pleatue State etc, of Nigeria. Investigations on outbreak of cholera in Nigeria have focused on the epidemiological features, the probable source of contamination and the risk factors without spatial linkage of health data. However, advances in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides this opportunity and have become an indispensible tool for processing, analyzing and visualizing spatial data within the domains of environmental health, disease ecology and public health (Kistemann et al., 2002).
The use of GIS is not new in waterborne disease outbreaks and cholera studies. It has been applied in investigating waterborne disease outbreak (NWW, 1999), microbial risk assessment of drinking water reservoirs (Kistemann et al., 2001a), drinking water supply structure (Kistemann et al., 2001b), and spatial patterns of diarrhoea illness with regards to water supply structures (Dangendorf et al., 2002). In cholera studies, GIS technology has been applied in studying the correlation between socio-economic and demographic indices and cholera incidence (Ackers et al., 1998), environmental risk factors (Ali et al., 2002a), spatial epidemiology (Ali et al., 2002b), health risk prediction (Fleming et al., 2007) and spatial and demographic patterns of cholera (Osei and Duker, 2008). This study seeks to assess the causes and effect of cholera outbreak in Benin City, Edo State.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The threat of cholera rampaging through Nigeria has long been of concern to many. The crowded settings coupled with minimal water, sanitation, hygiene and health services, present a fearsome breeding ground for cholera to quickly escalate beyond control. In an attempt to avoid this worse-case scenario, a massive response needs to be mounted by the Government to enlighten the general public about the causes of this deadly disease and also ways to avoid the outbreak. Hygiene promoters should be employed to work every day, sharing information on how to avoid contracting the illness and the signs and symptoms of the disease.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the causes and effect of cholera during rainy season in Benin City.
The specific objectives of the study are:
- To identify the cause of cholera in Benin City.
- To ascertain if cholera outbreak is usually rampant during the rainy season among children in Benin City.
- To identify the problems associated with the prevention of cholera in Benin City
- To determine the ways of preventing cholera outbreak in Benin City.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were asked and answered in the study:
- Does poor environmental sanitation lead cholera outbreak?
- Can drinking and bathing with contaminated water lead to cholera outbreak?
- Can those problems associated with the prevention of cholera virus be identified?
- Can cholera outbreak be prevented in Benin City?
1.5 Scope And Limitati1On Of The Study
This study tends to be limited to the assessment of the causes and effect of cholera during rainy season in Benin City.
1.6 Limitation Of The Study
However, in the course of carrying out this research work, the researcher can foresee some limitations which include; insufficient financing, insufficient data for the research work and the time required for the project to be concluded
1.7 Definition Of Terms
Cholera is an acute epidemic infectious disease. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, extreme loss of fluid and electrolytes, and severe dehydration. … It is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod (comma) shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, or an outbreak or unusually high occurrence of disease or illness in a populated area.
The study of the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease condition in a defined population.
Can be seen as a disorder from the normal healthy state of the body, soul and mind of human being, which manifest is itself in an abnormal development of the physical, physiological and mental state of the human being concerned.
An expression of an intention to inflict pain, injury, evil or punishment. An indication of impending danger or harm.
Is the term describing the state of a person or material on coming in contact with disease pathogen.
The act or process of transferring a disease from one person to another‟
A sudden, violent or spontaneous occurrence especially of disease or strife.
The invasion of body tissues by disease causing microorganism, their multiplication and the reaction of body tissues to these microorganisms and the toxins that they produce.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
The purpose of this study is to carry the causes and effect of cholera among children with respect to the traditional method of Cholera data handling and management using archive in theMinistry of health Benin city, Edo state. To analyze the causes and effect of cholera epidemic in the study area. Results showed that poor environment sanitation leads to cholera outbreak, washing of hands before eating helps to prevent or reduce the cholera outbreak, also drinking and bathing with contaminated water leads to cholera infection and a poorly kept toilet also causes cholera outbreak etc. recommendations were indicated which include that, government should swing into action by providing various measures in other to prevent and reduce cholera disease in the country and in Benin City. Our water should be properly treated by adding chlorine to it before drinking and bathing with it. We are also advice to keep clean areas where food are prepared and these food should be properly covered to avoid the cholera outbreak, mothers are also advice to wash their children clothes with soap and clean water and hands should be washed after taking care of sick people to avoid the risk of the disease.
In this study, we report the presence of Vibrio choleracan be found in some well, river and street-vended water samples analyzed Benin with a prevalence. The microorganism was not isolated from borehole and pipeborne water sources. Vibrio cholera was found to be predominant in river, followed by well water and lastly, street-vended water.Water samples from Benin River were the most contaminated followed by that from Ogba while the least contaminated water samples were from Benin City.The study also revealed that the use of PCR targeting species specific gene (ompW) in combination with conventional microbiological techniques is essential for proper identification of V. cholera.
From the results of this research, we can conclude that the environment and water plays an important role as a transmission vehicle for Vibrio cholera considering the presence of the pathogen in the water samples (well, street-vended and river) thus indicating that the environment may also be conducive for the survival of other serogroups such as O1 and O139 which are etiologic agents of cholera. This infers that consumption of water and poor environment may constitute a risk to public health and mothers should be very careful concerning these two factors so as to maintain the health of their children and save them for cholera.
The main contribution of the study is the detailing and capturing of costs associated with cholera incidence on Benin where a gap in literature exited.
Based on detailed findings, the following recommendations are made;
- Health-based targets and water quality improvement programmes in general should be implemented by government in the context of a broader public health policy, including initiatives to improve sanitation, waste disposal, personal hygiene and public education on mechanisms for reducing both personal exposure to hazards and the impact of personal activity on water quality.
- In combination with conventional methods which serve as gold standard for detection of V. cholerae, the use of PCR targeting ompW gene which is species specific should be encouraged for appropriate identification of the microorganism.
- Surveillance studies should be conducted by health organizations including both State and Federal Ministry of Health, to prevent occurrence of outbreaks of Vibrio cholerae which could possibly result in an epidemic.
- Government should provide a means of ensuring proper distribution and management of municipal water supply to enhance accessibility of potable water to consumers.
- Local authorities should implement surveillance programmes for water provided by vendors and, where necessary, develop education programmes to improve the collection, treatment and distribution of water to prevent contamination.
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