Effects Of Charts And Models On Academic Performance Of Physics Students In Public Schools
The study investigated the effects of charts and models on students’ achievement in Physics. The study employed a quasi-experimental design, specifically the pretest – posttest non-equivalent group design. One hundred and forty SSI students from potiskum Education Zone from 2 schools randomly drawn from public primary schools in Potiskum education zone of Yobe State formed sample of the study. The results revealed that students taught using charts and models performed better than students taught without them; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in Physics; rural students performed better than urban students in physics; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction effect between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in physics. Based on the findings and implications, it was recommended that teaching of Physics in secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It was suggested that further research could be carried out on this topic using true experimental research design.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Objectives of the Study
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Hypotheses
- 1.7 Significance of the Study
- 1.8 Scope of the Study
- 1.9 Limitations of the Study
- 1.10 Operational Definitions
- 1.11 Organization of The Study
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Theoretical Review
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 2.4 Summary of Reviewed Literature
- 3.1 Design of the study
- 3.2 Population of the study
- 3.4 Instrument for data collection
- 3.5 Validation of Instrument
- 3.6 Reliability of the instrument
- 3.7 Experimental Procedure
- 3.8 Control of Extraneous Variables
- 3.9 Method of data collection
- 3.10 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.11 Ethical Considerations
Data Analysis and Result
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Hypotheses
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Educational Implications
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
1.1 Background of the Study
Physics is one of the science subjects that senior secondary school students offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian secondary schools, (FRN, 2004). Physics is a very important science subject and a requirement for further learning of a number of science-related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, etc. In contemporary Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development. As a result, students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects. Today, Physics pervades literally every field of human endeavour, and plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. This is seen in all the technological advancement in the world today, which is because of scientific investigations. However, the issue remains that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, there is high rate of failure in the subject.
Studies have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting low interest in Physics (Esiobu, 2005). This low interest of students in physics has been traced to poor achievement in examinations. In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good achievement in physics at all levels of schooling. Unfortunately, achievement of students in physics at the end of the secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 1999). Folorunso (2004) has linked poor achievement trend in physics particularly to the lack of charts and models in schools due to poor funding of schools. The poor funding of schools has hindered the principals from providing the teachers with adequate charts and models.
The National Policy on Education (FME, 2004) emphasizes the need for teaching and learning of science processes and principles. The policy recommends practical, exploratory and experimental methods of teaching. In this regards, Okebukola (2004) stated that the basic tools that science uses in the learning of science processes are the charts and models.
Studies have shown that the use of charts and models have improved achievement (George, 2008) and Nwagbo (2006). Charts and models are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students. The teaching of Physics without charts and models may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Poor academic achievement in Physics could also be attributed to many factors such as, low interest of students in physics, inadequate motivation from teacher, poor incentives to physics teachers, lack of adequate supply of instructional material, lack of qualified teachers, and use of teacher centered instructional strategies, inadequate use of charts and models and use of abstract standardized materials. Among these factors, teacher’s use of abstract standardized instructional strategy is considered as an important factor in this study.
This implies that the mastery of Physics concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of charts and models that the students are abreast with. The teaching of Physics without charts and models may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Folorunso (2004) observed that there is lack of adequate and appropriate charts and models for effective teaching of Physics in schools. For Ibitoye and Fape (2007), the poor achievement in physics was traced to poor usage of charts and models for physics teaching and learning, poor state of infrastructure facilities, large class size, poor teaching, use of faulty assessment practice, and inadequacy of quality teachers. According to Okebukola (2004), the poor state of laboratory facilities and inadequate use of charts and models has constituted a cog in the wheel of students’ achievement in Physics in the Senior School Examination. The verbal exposition does not promote skill acquisition, objectivity, and critical thinking abilities that will enable the child to function effectively in the society. This according to the researcher leads to poor achievement of students in the subject. Okebukola and Jegede (1986) stressed that a professionally qualified Physics teacher no matter how well trained, would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and material resources necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
On the interaction effect of location and instructional treatment, Odo (1999) found an interaction effect between location and instructional treatment. However, Momoh (2001) and Miriogu (2012) have contrary reports on interaction effect of school location and instructional treatment. Interestingly in all these studies, none investigated the interaction effect of location, and instructional treatment on students’ academic achievement. Based on these controversies, this study therefore seeks to find out the effect on students’ academic achievement when taught physics using charts and models in senior secondary schools in Potiskum Educational Zone.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Evidence from the studies reviewed shows that failure rate in physics at senior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factors is lack or total absence of charts and models. In teaching and learning, charts and models play a key role towards concretizing learning. Charts and models make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However, these advantages of charts and models have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these charts and models in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative charts and models called improvisation.
Physics is resource intensive, and in an era of poor funding or scarcity of resources, it may be very difficult to find some of the original materials and equipment for the teaching of Physics in schools adequately, improvisation becomes the next option. Studies have shown the importance of improvisation in teaching of Physics. All these studies used conventional charts and models, but there have not been studies specifically on the effect of charts and models on students’ achievement in Physics. This study therefore, is geared towards finding out if the use of charts and models could bring a solution to the problem of poor achievement of students in physics. Hence, the problem of this study is therefore posed as a question; what is the effect of charts and models on students’ achievement in Physics?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the Effects of charts and models on accademic perfomance of physics students in public schools
1.4 Objectives of the Study
This study specifically will determine:
- Effect of charts and models and conventional materials on students’ mean achievement scores in Physics
- Influence of gender on students’ mean achievement scores in physics when taught using charts and models
- Influence of school location on students’ mean achievement scores in physics when taught using charts and models
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide this study:
- What is the mean achievement scores of students taught physics using charts and models and those taught using conventional instructional materials?
- What is the influence of gender on students’ mean achievement scores in physics when taught using charts and models?
- What is the influence of school location on students’ mean achievement scores in physics when taught using student’s charts and models?
- H0 there is no significant relationship between using charts and models and academic achievement
- H1 there is significant relationship between using charts and models and academic achievement
1.7 Significance of the Study
The theoretical significance of this study is anchored on the cognitive development theory of Jean Piaget. According to Piaget, children develop knowledge by inventing or constructing reality out of experience and thus mix their observation with their ideas about how the world works. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development holds that cognitive development takes place from active interaction of the child with his environment. This means that the basis of learning is the child’s own ability as he interacts with his physical and social environment. Piaget is of the opinion that a child must act on the objects in his environment for him to learn. This means that he should be actively involved not be passive. The active involvement of the child may be in form of direct manipulation, visual observation or through mental or internal transportation or change. Therefore, this study will help to validate Piaget’s theory of cognitive development or question the theory.
This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing improvised materials with local resources where standardised materials are unavailable or inadequate. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during physics instructions.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is on effects of charts and models on academic performance of physics students in public schools. This study will be conducted with SS I Physics students in secondary schools in Potiskum LGA of Yobe state, Nigeria.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The generalizations made with respect to this study are however subject to the following limitations:
- Since different teachers were used for different groups, it could be assumed that they might not have been of equal attributes in terms of cognitive, personality and affective functioning. This might have introduced error in the study.
- There was also the problem of absenteeism among the students. The fact that some students skipped classes may have influenced their performance.
- The study is only restricted to only SSI students in secondary schools in Potistum Education Zone of Yobe State. This will make the scope of generalizations fairly narrow.
1.10 Operational Definitions
Chart is a sheet of information in the form of a table, graph, or diagram.
Models is a thing used as an example to follow or imitate.
Instructional materials are the content or information conveyed within a course. These include the lectures, readings, textbooks, multimedia components, and other resources in a course.
1.11 Organization of the Study
The study is organized into five chapters.
- Chapter one covers; background to the study, statement of the problem, general objective of the study, specific objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, limitation of the study, delimitations of the study, operational definition of terms and organization of the study.
- Chapter two covers review of related literature.
- Chapter Three covers research methodology which includes: introduction, research design, target population, sampling techniques and sample size, data collection instruments, validity and reliability of research instruments, data collecting procedures, data analysis techniques and ethical considerations.
- Chapter four covers research results of the study.
- Chapter five covers discussions and interpretations
Discussion, Conclusion, Implications and Recommendations
From the results obtained in the study on the effects of charts and models on students’ achievement in Physics, it was found that students taught physics using charts and models performed better than students taught without; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in Physics; rural students performed better than urban students in physics. The interaction effect of using charts and models and students’ mean achieve
5.2 Educational Implications
The findings of this study have implications for science education particularly in teaching physics in secondary schools. The implications of this study border on development of more virile instructional materials for teaching physics. The study revealed that it was students taught using charts and models performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in Physics; rural students performed better than urban students in physics; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction effect between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in physics.
In addition, the findings of this study have implications for physics teachers. With these findings on the efficacy of charts and models on students’ achievement in physics, it has become obvious that the current conventional instructional materials recommended by the Ministry of Education are inadequate to meet the needs of the student and consequently need to be reviewed. This will, without doubt, enhance students’ achievement in science, particularly in physics. The use of charts and models rendered effectiveness irrespective of the student’s gender.
Based on the findings of this study, and their implications, the following recommendations are made.
- The teaching of Physics in secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It should be practical as the use of charts and models has play greater role in students’ achievement.
- Teacher should try to improvise instructional materials and encourage students to do the same. This will gives students enough understanding of Physics concepts as the child’s local environment will be use to source for the materials.
- It is suggested that regular meaningful workshop on improvisation technique for Science teachers should be conducted to improve and update their competence in teaching.
- At the local education authority level, effort should be made from time to time to organize workshops for Physics teachers on improvisation and needs for the use of instructional materials. This is to compliment the efforts of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for re-training of Science teachers.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
Based on the findings and limitations of this research, the following topics are suggested for further research.
- Similar studies should be conducted in physics to find out the effects of improvised and conventional instructional material on students’ achievement among varied ability levels and their retention.
- Similar study should be carried out using other science subjects
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