The Effects Of Budgeting And Control Activities In Corporate Governance

Project and Seminar Material for Accountancy / Accounting

The Effects Of Budgeting And Control Activities In Corporate Governance


Budgeting and budgeting Control occupies an important place among techniques used in planning and control functions of an organization. In budgeting, the focus is not only to prepare the budget but more importantly to have a follow-up operation for budgeting and act according to known data. The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of budgetary control on the financial performance of selected manufacturing companies in Nigeria. A descriptive research design was used in this study. Simple random sampling technique will be used.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Budgeting can be traced to the 18th century period when it was used to check the powers of the king concerning taxation as a source of revenue and the governments expenditure. It involves management development plans developed in order for the terms of marketing to be served, the production and distribution process to be used and the facilities and personnel required.

Controls can be seen as single procedures or whole systems they are established by management either directly or by means of external consultants e.g auditors, accountants, etc to maintain orderliness in the business enterprise. Internal control activities can be defined as the whole system of controls financial or otherwise established by the management in order to carry out the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to managements policies, safeguard the assets and secure as far as possible the completeness and accuracy of records. Controls in relation to finance are those activities that involve planning and control of all aspects of production or marketing of commodities using the budget as a tool.

Corporate governance as a term covers all the general mechanisms by which management are led to act in the best interest of companies’ owners statutory control of corporate governance has been with us for a long time and has increased overtime. While it is impossible to have a crime free society, the need to spell out the rules of the game cannot be overemphasized. Corporate governance means the system which companies are directed in the best interest of the owners and investors in this case through the use of budgets.

The study will be taken from four angles. The first is centered on the preparation of the budget. The guidelines or rules which the firm follows in preparing budgets and the consideration given in preparing a budget. It now leads to the question of how an organization prepares it budget. The second point of reference is how the budget preparation influences the organizational performance and also the individual performance. The third point of reference is centered on how the control system works and its ability to properly direct the staff of the organization. Finally, we look at the weaknesses or strength of budgeting and control activities in an organization in relatives to the performance of its staff.

It is important to know that budget or forecast is predicting and planning is taking action on the forecast to make it an economic reality. Planning is concerned with setting objectives and the means for their attainment. It is essentially concerned with the future therefore it must be an adequate predictive model which must have objectives and leads to a higher level of performance which may not be possible without it. Planning is therefore closely related to budgeting. Infact a budget is a planning tool.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

As we now launch into the 21stcentury, organizations worldwide, both private and public, have realized the need to restructure and overhaul their activities for a better quality 10 service delivery pattern. One of the most radically affected aspects of these organizations is the budget and budgetary control. Recognizing the role of budget and budgetary control, manufacturing organizations leverage so much on it. In the private sector, several departments, whose main business is the implementation and monitoring of budgets, have been established. In the public sector, budget monitoring and project implementation committees have become an integral part of the administrations. For efficiency and effectiveness, manufacturing firms in Nigeria need to plan for success. How do they currently go about planning and specifically budgeting? In recent times, companies have performed poorly due, to the fact that they lack effective and efficient budgets, and budgetary control systems to adequately and judiciously allocate resources to meet organizational goals, and maximize performance. A study conducted by Boquist (2001) observed that companies continue to blunder and fail because they have flawed budgetary planning and control systems, which they apparently fail to recognize. Some firms sense weakness of their budgetary analysis but viewed them as individual problems rather than systematic deficiencies. They misdirect efforts and produce greater frustration. It is in view of the above that the researcher intend to investigate the effect of budgeting and control activities in corporate governance

1.3 Objective of the Study

The main aim of this study is to highlight the importance of the preparation of budgets. It is also wants to give an insight into the impact which budgeting and control activities have in corporate governance.

The study aims to:

  1. To describe the methods employed by an organization in preparing its budget.
  2. To find out its effectiveness as a tool of the management.
  3. To set up mechanisms which will assist in achieving the objectives of the establishment.

1.4 Research Questions

The case study for this research is Unity Bank Plc and sample will be taken from its branches (2-3 branches) to get the data required for the research. The research will be based on the following research questions.

  • R1 – Does corporate gornannce generate wealth?
  • R2 – Does the survival of a company depend on the preparation of budget.
  • R3 – Can the budget committee aid the control system of an organization?
  • R4 – Are performance evaluated on the standard obtained?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The hypothesis to be tested are;

  1. Ho: Enhanced corporate governance does not improve wealth
    Hi: Enhance corporate governance generates or improves wealth.
  2. Ho: The survival of any company is dependent on how well it manages its revenue and expenditure
    Hi: The survival of any company is largely dependent on how well it manages its revenue and expenditure.
  3. Ho: The role of the budget committee cannot be used to strengthen the control system.
    Hi: The role of the budget committee can be used to further strengthen budgeting control system in the corporate sector.
  4. Ho: Effective performance evaluation will not boost the success of the company.
    Hi: Effective performance evaluation will boost the success of the company.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is very significant in the sense that it can, if properly utilized, act as a catalyst to inspire proper use of budgets and budgeting and also inspire development of control activities in organization whether big or small. It has the following effects.

  1. It lead to the gaining of knowledge by providing such information that will broaden the horizon.
  2. It creates a high degree of awareness about the need for sound planning and budgeting systems in various organizations.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is carried out to highlight the differences which may exist between the budgeting and control activities. It will look into budgeting, budgets, budgetary controls and how they are carried out and the differences between these various terms.It will also examine control activities i.e internal control system of an organization and its effectiveness in the implementation of a budget. The study will be carried out in Lagos among 2-3 branches of Unity Bank Plc

A direct statistical issue in this study is in the preparation of budget and control activities and their implementation in corporate governance. It is assumed that every organization prepares budget but the question one will ask is how seriously are these budgets followed and are their controls in place to ensure the strict adherence to the budget. It has however, come to notice that a lot of the businesses do not recognized the important role played by budgets in the success of their business and this has led to the failure of many organizations.

The reasons for this failure can be attributed to:

  1. Negative attitudinal trait of the operating managers against budget.
  2. Lack of realistic data in budget preparation
  3. It represents an ordinary tool which may not be effective without closer supervision.
  4. Establishment of unattainable standard or target for workers.
  5. Budget ignores responsibility centers in performance evaluation

1.8 Definition of Terms

The following are the definitions of some terms that one might come across when going through this topic.

A. Budget:

A budget is a financial statement which is prepared at the beginning of every period in an organization containing the plans of the management concerning it revenues and expenditures.

B. Budgetary Control:

According to the institute of cost and Management Accountants (ICMA). It can be defined as the establishment of departmental budgets relating to the responsibilities of the executives of an organization to the requirements of the policies of and the comparison of actual results with the budgeted period.

C. Cash Budget:

This represents the cash receipts and payment and the estimated cash balances for each month of the budgeted period.

D. Administrative Expense Budget:

This involves forecasting the number of working people both direct and indirect who will be needed to meet the production requirements.

E. Internal Control System:

It is the whole system of control financial or otherwise set up or established by the management in order to carry out the business of the enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management policies, safeguard the assets and secure as far as possible the completeness and accuracy of records.

1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of budgeting and control activities in corporate governance.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of budgeting and control activities in corporate governance.

5.2 Summary

This chapter presents the summary, conclusions and recommendations based on the study objective which was to assess the effects of budgetary control activities in corporate governance. Majority of the financial managers indicated a period of 1-5 years in responding to time dimensions a budget covers, that the that their budget is reviewed quarterly and that they have an approximate budget. The study showed and stressed the importance budgetary control. The findings also reveal as argued that budgetary control is the process of determining various budgeted figures for the enterprise and then comparing the actual performance with the budgeted figures for calculating the variances, if any. In this process, first budgets are to be prepared. Second, actual results are to be recorded. Third, comparison is to be made between the actual with the planned action for calculating the variances. It can be summarized from results that with an effective budget control in place, discrepancies are known and remedial measures are to be taken, at proper time. Then only, planned results can be achieved.

5.3 Conclusion

The study concludes that; budgetary control integrates the organization’s strategic planning with budgets and processes of cost control, budgetary control identifies the budgeting / financial skills required for better decision making, identify key financial indicators for the business and how and when monitor them, budgetary control identifies sources of financial and business data that provide insights into business and financial strategies when converted into budgets, budgetary control helps interpret budgets and performance measurements as communication tools and finally help to think pro-actively beyond budgeting and that budgetary control also economizes management time by using the management by exceptional principle.

5.4 Recommendations

This study recommends that managers in the manufacturing companies continue with the motive of valuing budgetary control in their polices (planning, monitoring and control as well as advocating for participatory budgeting for these has been found to influence their financial performance to a great extent. The study also recommends that managers produce detailed budgetary plans to enable the implementation of the long term or strategic plan. The annual budgeting process must be embraced always as found out in this study encourages managers to plan for future operations, refine existing strategic plans and considers how they can respond to changing circumstances. This encourages managers to anticipate problems before they arise and ensures reasoned decision making. This study also recommends that managers within the organisation must have a clear understanding of the role which they are required to play in ensuring budgetary compliance. This ensures that the most appropriate individuals are made accountable for budget implementation. Senior management can also use budgets to communicate corporate objectives downwards and ensure that other employees understand them and co-ordinate their activities to attain them. The act of preparation as well as the budget itself will also improve communication. Participation in budget setting relates to the extent that subordinates are able to influence the figures incorporated in their targets. This study recommends that participation always be embraced to allow the influence of the employees to the budget if performance increments are to be realized in the manufacturing companies.

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