The Effects Of Blending Cow Milk With Soymilk On Yoghurt Quality

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

The Effects Of Blending Cow Milk With Soymilk On Yoghurt Quality


Abstract


This investigation was carried out to study the effects of blending cow milk with soymilk on yoghurt quality. Yoghurt was made from fresh cow’s milk supplemented with soymilk (10, 15 and 20%), mixed with Gum Arabic (0.5 and 0.7%). Sugar (6%) and juices of banana (90 mg/100 ml water), mango (50 mg/ml water) and guava (100 mg/100 ml water). The results showed that fat, protein, ash contents and acidity were high in the plain yoghurt, while the highest value of total solids was obtained in yoghurt supplemented with 10% soymilk. The highest scores of color, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability were obtained in the plain yoghurt, while the highest score of taste was obtained in yoghurt supplemented with 15% soymilk.

The highest fat, protein, ash content and total solids were obtained in guava yoghurt, while the highest acidity was obtained in mango yoghurt the best taste and color are obtained in guava yoghurt the highest scores of flavor and consistency were obtained in banana yoghurt, while the highest overall acceptability obtained in the mango yoghurt. The highest contents of protein, total solids, ash and acidity were obtained in yoghurt with 0.5% Gum Arabic, while the highest fat content was obtained in yoghurt with 0.7% Gum Arabic. The highest scores of color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability were obtained in yoghurt with 0.7% Gum Arabic, while the highest consistency was obtained in yoghurt with 0.5% Gum Arabic. The highest values of fat, total solids and ash were reported on the 3rd day of storage period, while the highest values of protein and acidity were obtained at the 6th day of storage. The highest scores of color, consistency, taste and overall acceptability were reported on the 3rd day of storage period, while the highest scores of flavor were obtained on the 6th day of storage period.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Justification of the study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Milk
  • 2.1.1 Cow’s milk
  • 2.2 Fermentation
  • 2.3 Fermented dairy products
  • 2.4 The therapeutic effect of fermented dairy products
  • 2.5 Yoghurt
  • 2.5.1 Starter cultures in yoghurt
  • 2.5.2 Composition of yoghurt
  • 2.5.3 Types of yoghurt
  • 2.5.3.1 Flavored yoghurt
  • 2.5.3.2 Frozen flavored yoghurt:
  • 2.5.3.3 Acidophilus yoghurt:
  • 2.5.3.4 Set yoghurt:
  • 2.5.3.5 Stirred yoghurt
  • 2.6 Factors affecting the quality of yoghurt
  • 2.6.1 Type of milk
  • 2.6.2 Starter cultures
  • 2.6.3 Heat treatment
  • 2.6.4 Storage of yoghurt
  • 2.7 Nutritional value of yoghurt
  • 2.8 Therapeutic effect of yoghurt
  • 2.9 Stabilizers in yoghurt
  • 2.10 Gum Arabic as a stabilizer
  • 2.11 Uses of soymilk in the dairy industry

Chapter Three:

Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.2.1 Preparation of soymilk
  • 3.2.2 Preparation of samples for yoghurt manufacture
  • 3.2.3 Manufacture of yoghurt
  • 3.2.4 Chemical analyses of milk and yoghurt
  • 3.2.4.1 Fat content
  • 3.2.4.2 Protein content
  • 3.2.4.3 Total solids content
  • 3.2.4.4 Ash content
  • 3.2.4.5 Titratable acidity
  • 3.2.5 Sensory evaluation
  • 3.2.6 Statistical analyses

Chapter Four:

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Effect of level of substitution of soymilk on the chemical composition of yoghurt
  • 4.2 Effect of concentration of soymilk on the sensory characteristics of yoghurt
  • 4.3 Effect of type of fruit on the chemical composition of yoghurt
  • 4.4 Effect of type of fruit on the sensory characteristics of yoghurt
  • 4.5 Effect of concentration of Gum Arabic on the chemical composition of yoghurt
  • 4.6 Effect of concentration of Gum Arabic on sensory characteristics of yoghurt.
  • 4.7 Effect of storage period on the chemical composition of yoghurt
  • 4.8 Effect of storage period on the sensory characteristics of yoghurt

Chapter Five:

Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusions
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

Fermented milk products are cultured dairy products made from skim, whole or slightly concentrated milk, that require specific lactic acid bacteria to develop their characteristic flavor and texture. Fermented milks are usually fluid or semi-fluid in nature and all contain lactic acid in varying proportions. Fermentation of milk modifies its properties resulting in beverages such as yoghurt; kefir and other cultured dairy products (Webb et al., 1980).
Fermented milks in general have a good nutritional value that compares favorably with that of milk from which they are made (Abou Dawood et al., 1993).

Yoghurt and other cultured dairy products are highly nutritious foods which in some circumstances also have therapeutic value (Deeth, 1984). Yoghurt contains all the elements of nutrition found in milk in more digestible form (Abou Dawood et al., 1993). Yoghurt is always made from cow’s or baffaloe’s milk, although production from cow’s milk is economically less expensive than cows and baffaloe’s milk (Abbrahamsenet al., 1981).
In some countries, cow’s milk is consumed as fluid milk, even on a commercial basis and the components of cow’s milk are of considerable market interest (Haenlein, 1995).

Since the cow is the animal of poor people and its milk is consumed fresh, in addition to the possibility of manufacturing dairy products from this milk, especially being focused on the cow as a major dairy animal in the household.


1.2 Statement of the problem

The direct fortification of dairy products with vegetable proteins has been increasing because of reasonably low prices of vegetable proteins compared to animal protein, low fat product and nutritional healthy value, regarding the lactose intolerant. The direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products also has been increasing over the years because of animal diseases, global shortage of animal protein, strong demand for wholesome and religious food, and economic reasons (Asgar et al., 2010). The development of nutritionally balanced protein foods to feed the growing population in such countries is receiving increasing attention of the food scientists and nutritionists. Several international agencies and governmental programs in developing countries are confronted with a challenging task of alleviating the so-called protein calories malnutrition problem (Singh and Singh, 1991).


1.3 Objectives of the study

The present study was aimed to examine the effects of blending cow milk with soymilk on yoghurt quality

The specific objectives of the study were to determine:

  1. The effect of addition soymilk to goat’s milk at three different concentrations on chemical and organoleptic characteristics and shelf life of the product.
  2. To investigate the affect of addition of juices of different concentrations of three fruits on chemical organoleptic and shelf life.
  3. The utilization of Gum Arabic at two levels on chemical organoleptic and shelf life.

1.4 Justification of the study

Yoghurt is dairy product obtained by lactic acid fermentation as an action of starter culture contained of Lactobacillus delbrueckiissp. bulgaricus and Streptococcusthermophiles, and with addition of probiotics, it becomes powerful functional food. It is prepared from fresh whole or skimmed milk, boiled and concentrated by evaporation.
On the other hand, soybean is one of the oldest crops of the Far East and has long been consumed by a significant portion of the world population as one of their most important sources of dietary protein and oil. Soybeans produce the highest amount of protein per unit area and hence are a very important source of non-animal protein. The conversions of the protein present in the soybean to soy protein isolates is highly inefficient and expensive, and thus more direct utilization of soybeans in forms such as soymilk or tofu, provide more efficient means of incorporating soy protein in the human diet. It is important to point out that soybean protein is a high quality protein (meaning fully digestible, with an amino acid composition closely matching the amino acid pattern required for human consumption) but somewhat low in sulfur containing amino acids, with methionine being the limiting amino acid.

Functional soy milk can be considered as soy milk that contains extra bioactive components and may help to enhance health or lower risk of diseases. Soybean is a good source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties and has an extraordinarily high amount of isoflavones, a group of phytoestrogens that have been reported to possibly lower the risk of hormonal and age-related diseases


Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

Form this investigation the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. The highest fat, protein and ash contents and acidity were found in the plain yoghurt, while the highest total solids content was obtained in yoghurt made from 10% soymilk.
  2. The plain yoghurt gave the best scores of color, flavor, consistency and overall acceptability, while the best score in taste was obtained in yoghurt made with 15% soymilk.
  3. The total solids content was high in guava yoghurt, while other constituents were high in plain yoghurt.
  4. Gum Arabic at 0.5% gave the highest total solids content.
  5. Storage of yoghurt for 3 days gave the highest fat, total solids and ash contents, while storage for 6 days resulted in high protein content and acidity.
  6. The highest scores in color, consistency, taste and overall acceptability were found in yoghurt stored for 3 days, while the flavor was best when yoghurt was stored for up to 6 days.

5.2 Recommendations

The study recommends the following:

  1. Local fruits of Sudan as papaya and other tropical fruits can be used for the manufacture of fruit yoghurt.
  2. Research should be focused on vitamin content of yoghurt from cow’s milk supplemented with soymilk.
  3. Attempts should be made to manufacture cowpea milk for blending in infant food.
  4. The microbiology of yoghurt made with soymilk or cowpea milk should be determined.
  5. In such yoghurt, other stabilizers such as guar gum should be tried.

The Effects Of Blending Cow Milk With Soymilk On Yoghurt Quality


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