Effects Of The Use Of Audio-Visual Materials In The Teaching And Learning Of Computer In Junior Secondary Schools
This study evaluated the effects of the use of audio-visual materials (AVM) in the teaching and learning of computer in the junior secondary schools of Ebonyi State. The study also examined the effect of AVM and gender on students’ academic achievement in computer studies. The performance of student taught with AVM was compared with those of students taught with conventional teaching method (CTM). In order to carry out the study effectively, three research questions were asked and three hypotheses were formulated and tested. Many related literature were reviewed. The sample for the study consisted of 100 secondary school students.
The researcher constructed the test items, which were then face validated by two Experts; one in computer education and the other in measurement and evaluation after which it was administered to the students. Computer achievement test (COMSAT) was used to collect data for the study. The hypotheses were tested using the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The data obtained were analyzed. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question. The hypotheses were tested with 0.05 level of significant.
The analysis indicated that AVM had significant effects on students’ cognitive achievement in computer. Gender was a significant factor in the students’ overall cognitive achievement in computer. Thus, it is recommended to use AVM in the teaching and learning of computer, state governments or their ministries of Education and professional associations should organize workshops, seminars and conferences to train the serving teachers on the use of AVM technique. Finally, the limitation of study and suggestion for further studies were highlighted.
1.1 Background of the Study
We live in an age that is experiencing an ever-increasing use of computers in diverse areas of human endeavor. Computers offer great assistance in decision-making, operations control, modeling, simulation, automated manufacturing etc. The history of development shows that so far, no industrialized nation has been able to make it without the use of computers (Inyama, 2006).
In education, computers are used in extremely versatile ways to aid the understanding of a wide variety of students. Computer science as a feature in secondary school curricular has been faced with some challenges. Over the years, students` response to computer science especially in public schools has been poor and the reason seems to be that instructional materials specifically audio-visual materials may not have been used or properly utilized during instruction and this is a source of worry to the researchers considering its possible effects on students’ achievement in the subject. This stated problem has often been attributed to the effects of the use of instructional materials, specifically, (audio-visuals).
Meaningful learning is most likely to occur when information is presented in a potentially meaningful way that the information conveyed is made or presented in a way that the majority of what was taught remains permanent in the learners memory. Webster’s Encyclopaedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language defines Audio-Visual Aids as “training or educational materials directed at both the senses of hearing and the sense of sight, films, recordings, photographs, etc. used in classroom instructions, library collections or the likes”.
The term has also been defined by Dike, (2011) as; those materials which do not depend solely upon reading to convey meaning. They may present information through the sense of hearing as in audio resources, sight, as in visual resources or through a combination of senses. Indeed, the variety of such resources is a striking characteristic.
According to (Anzaku Francis, 2011) “the term audio-visual material is commonly used to refer to those instructional materials that may be used to convey meaning without complete dependence upon verbal symbols or language”. Thus according to the above definition, a text book or a reference material does not fall within this grouping of instructional materials but an illustration in a book does. Some audio-visual components are in the nature of process and experience, for example, dramatizing an event or a procedure or making diorama. Some of the audio-visual materials like the motion pictures require the use of equipment to release their latent value. Some do not need equipment at all like an exhibit or a study print. This term designates in common usage both material things as well as processes such as field trips.
Anzaku further stated that audio-visual materials include materials and equipment alike, that materials are considered to be system, or body of content of potential value when put to work, while equipment or instructions, often referred to as hardware, components, are the means of presenting such content. The importance of audio-visual materials in the teaching and learning processes cannot be over emphasized. Below are some of the roles of audio-visual materials.
Basing learning in sense experience, Extending experience ,Encouraging participation, Stimulating interest ,Individualizes instructions, Serves as a source of information, Making leaning permanent,
Basing learning in sense experience: stressing the importance of audio-visual materials, ( Ngozi, Samuel,and Isaac, 2012) unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner in so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series. This is to say that audio-visual materials are the equipment through which that function can occur, that is does not occur in isolation, rather through a balance pattern from any preceptor mechanism that are stimulated by external occurrences.
Swank, (2011). stressing the effectiveness of visual materials in leaning, estimated that about 40% of our concepts are based upon visual experience, 25% upon auditory, 17% on tactile, 15% upon miscellaneous organic sensation and 3% upon taste smell. With the above assertion, it becomes clearer why audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes. This is because, they bring the different senses contributions together to get 100% clarity.
Extending Experience: Gopal, (2010) stressed that audio-visual materials help the teacher to overcome physical difficulties of presenting subject matter. That is to say, with audio-visual materials, the barrier of communication and distance is broken. The culture and climatic conditions of other countries can be brought into the classroom with the aid of slides, films, filmstrips and projectors. This is important because, according to Dike, (1993) “once the phenomenon is visualized, the picture and knowledge becomes very clear and permanent”. Agreeing to this assertion, a 20th century Chinese philosopher stated that “one picture is worth a thousand words”.
Encouraging Participation; Natoli, (2011) once again added that “audio-visual materials are rich opportunities for students to develop communication skill while actively engaged in solving meaningful problems”. In other words, students certainly like it more and learn better if they are engaged in important and appealing activities. For example, involving students in bulletin board display will enhance their choice of colour and aid their understanding of the concept in question or when they join the teacher in dramatization of an event or a process.
Stimulating Interest: According to Katherine (2009) “learning takes place effectively when the teacher sets out to provide learning situation in which a child will learn because of his natural reactions of the provided materials”. During the process of learning, the teacher has to provide the learning situation to satisfy the natural reaction of the learner and this is through the use of instructional aids. The attention of the learner is caught and his interest is also won and he is ready to learn.
Fawcett Hills (1994) also contributing on the role of audio-visual materials in stimulating interest stated that “A friendly, accepting group climate is important in any learning situations, especially those materials that require students to reveal their ignorance and confront their fellow students”. When there is a climate of acceptance for learning, then learning is stimulated.
Individualized Instruction: Lestage, A. (2009) stressed that audio-visual materials provide a means of individualizing instruction. This he said is possible through programmed learning and tapes which enable the learner to learn at his pace and also to work on his own. Moreover, according to Dike, (1993) the machine frees the teacher to work with individual students, since he or she is not now required to carry out routine drills. Production of resources by students is another way of individualizing instruction.
Making learning permanent :Audio-visual resources can play a major role of making learning permanent, Gopal, (2010) stressed that “audio-visual methods do seem to facilitate the acquisition, the retention and the recall of lessons learned, because, they seem to evoke the maximum response of the whole organism to the situations in which learning is done. And perceptual materials readily associate themselves with the unique experiential background of each individual. (Natoli, C. 2011) stressed that audio-visual materials are important in the teaching and learning processes because “Having seen something, most people remember, for whatever that thing was, it conjures up an image at a mere mention and can be talked about freely.
Dike N.M (2011) also explained that students forget because of lack of interest and opportunities to use the knowledge they have gained later on. Audio-visual resources can therefore contribute to the clarity of information presented by allowing students to visualize what is learned. Thus the saying Natoli,(2011): What I hear, I forget, WhatI see, I remember, What I do, I know.
Therefore, it is extremely important to investigate the effects of the use of audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in computer education.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The alarming condition of junior secondary school students achievement in computer studies may be attributed to lack of interest on the part of the learners which is as a result of the absence of the use of audio-visual materials by the teacher Eze, (2012).students do not retain for long or understand what they are taught without audio-visual aids.
Despite the outstanding positive effect of educational aids to instructional activities, teachers still insist only on the use of conventional approach to instruction, which is not based in sense experience nor does it extend their experience. Above all, such learning cannot be permanent. Yet, there is also evidence of low utilization and non-availability of audio-visual materials in schools, which has led to students lack of interest, attention and active participation in the teaching and learning exercise which might be responsible for the poor academic performance of students generally. Hence they have not been able to impact fully on computer education achievement.
The problem now is will the use of audio-visual materials effectively improve students `achievement in computer science?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study mainly sought to investigate the effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in computer science.
Specifically, it tends to determine:
- The effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in computer science.
- The effect of the use of audio-visual materials on male and female students’ achievement in computer science.
- The interactive effect of method and gender on students achievement in computer science.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The quest for an acceptable, relevant and adequate method of instruction for teaching and learning of computer has been of great concern to science educators. The developments and innovations in the computer instructional processes tend to identify some good qualities of the use of audio-visual materials
Discoveries from this study will encourage the use of audio-visual materials is in teaching and learning of computer education following the identification of the hindrances to maximum utilization of audio-visual resources in schools, effort will be made to minimize the effect of the hindrances and promote adequate utilization of the available resources. The result of this study will be made available to computer education teachers in the school system through workshops and seminars so that they can utilize the methods effectively in the classroom. The results of this will guide teachers on whether to separate instructional aids/materials for male and females students.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study is concerned with the investigation of the effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in computer science. The study was restricted to junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State only. The study will also investigate the effect of the use of audio-visual materials on the achievement of male and female students in computer studies.
1.6 Research Question
This study was guided by the following research questions:
- What is the effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in computer education?
- What is the mean achievement score of male and female students taught computer education using audio-visual materials?
- What is the interactive effect of method and gender on students achievement in computer science.
1.7 Hypothesis of the Study
The following null hypotheses were tested at an alpha level of 0.05
HO1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught computer using audio-visual materials and those taught using conventional teaching method.
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement on male and female students taught computer using audio-visual materials.
HO3: There is no significant interaction between gender and method on students’ mean achievement in computer education.
Discussion of Findings, Educational Implications, Recommendations, Limitations, Suggestions for Further Studies, Summary of the Study and Conclusion
This chapter deals with the discussions on interpretation of the results/findings. The educational implications of the study, recommendations, limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies are equally made.
5.1 Discussion of the Finding
5.1.1 The purpose of this study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of audio – visual aids in teaching and learning of computer in the junior secondary schools of Ebonyi state. The results are presented in tables in accordance with the research questions.
5.1.2 Effect of the use of audio-visual materials on students’ achievement in computer education.
The result of the analysis of covariance on the performance of students taught computer using audio visual materials and those taught with conventional classroom instruction indicated a significant difference in favour of the students in the experimental groups, the students achieved very much better than those taught conventionally and this goes with the findings of Ngozi, B.O. Samuel, A.O. and Isaac O.A., ( 2012) who unanimously agreed that audio-visual materials are very important and useful in education because, the normal learner is so far as the functions of his preceptor mechanisms are concerned, gains understanding in terms of multiple impression recorded through the eye, ear, touch and other series.
5.1.3 The mean achievement score of male and female students taught computer education using audio-visual materials.
The influence of gender on the academic achievement of students when taught with Audio-Visual instructional material was examined using hypotheses two and three. The result of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed significant gender difference for learners exposed to Audio-Visual instructional material. These findings showed that gender had influence on the performance of students in computer. Thus, it can be deduced that the use of Audio-Visual instructional material enhanced the achievement of both male and female students but the males achieved better.
5.1.4 Interaction between gender and method on students’ mean achievement in computer education.
The interaction between gender and method on students’ mean achievement in computer education was examined using hypothesis three, The result of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed significant interaction between gender and method on students mean achievement in computer education. the male students exposed to AVPCSI obtained a mean score of 21.23, while the female students also exposed to AVPCSI obtained a mean score of 16.74, they have a mean difference of 4.29, From the control group, those exposed to the Conventional Teaching Method (CTM), the male students obtained a mean of 14.04 and the female students obtained a mean of 13.95, with a mean difference of 0.09, Comparing the two results from method (AVPCSI and CTM), it is observed that those exposed to Audio-visual Package for Computer Studies Instruction achieved better than those exposed to the Conventional Teaching Method. The males from the experimental group also showed a remarkable measure of understanding more than the females. Their mean differences in gender is also evident, the male students from the experimental group obtained a mean score of 21.23 while their male counterparts in the control group obtained a mean score of 14.04 with their mean difference summing up to 7.19, showing that the males exposed to AVPCSI achieved better than the males exposed to CTM. Comparing the mean difference of the females as well from the experimental group and control, the females from the experimental had a mean of 16.74 while the females from the control group had a mean of 13.95 with their mean difference summing up to 2.78, the females increase in achievement was evident but not as much as that of the males.
5.2 Educational Implications
The result of this study has some implications for the students, teachers and education at large. The study has shown that audio¬visual aids are very effective in teaching and learning of computer studies.
In general, the study revealed that Audio-Visual Material (AVM) enhanced students’ achievement in computer. This implies that AVM is effective in increasing students’ motivation for learning. With the use of AVM, all the senses of the learner are brought together. By using AVM, procedural, methodical and abstract things can be brought home to the understanding of the students and make learning very interesting and easy.
Hence, the ministry of education should think in the direction of making AVM available for classroom instruction. The ministry of education in Nigeria should organize seminars, workshops and conferences for computer teachers on how to use and possibly improvise AVM in teaching computer so that the teachers of computer studies in junior secondary Schools can use the audio-visual aids effectively in the teaching of computer.
- The result of this study shows that audio- visual aids have positive effect on the students’ achievement and prove very effective; therefore, audio-visual aids should be procured, and distributed in all the junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state.
- Audio-visual materials are not always readily available for the teachers to use, even though they can manipulate it effectively, so they should be encouraged to use the aids. It is not necessarily that they should only go for the electronic types; they can equally devise local improvised types. Teachers, on their own should up-date their knowledge in the use of the audio-¬visual aids in teaching computer studies.
- Computer students should be introduced to audio-visual aid as a tool for meaningful learning.
- Computer education researchers may replicate and improve upon this study by conducting it among larger sample size and at other educational levels in the nations education system
5.4 Limitations of the Study
The following limitations can be observed regarding this study:
- The study was conducted using only JSS1 students, which is not the only class in the junior secondary school, therefore the results might not apply in other classes.
- The study was designed to focus on learning of computer by junior secondary students drawn from junior secondary schools in Ebonyi State alone. Thus, the findings may not be generalizable to other public and private educational institutions around Nigeria.
- The curriculum content was limited to four computer topics of the entire computer curriculum.
- It was difficult to get a computer studies Audio-Visual Materials for the study.
Despite these limitations the findings are significant, particularly in the use of Audio-Visual Materials in the teaching and learning of computer in junior secondary schools.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Study
The following suggestions are made for further studies;
- Other aids related to the audio-visual aids should be tried out to determine their effectiveness in teaching at secondary school education,
- Researchers should carryout similar studies using interest and retention as variables.
- Such areas as listed below should be investigated upon
- A comparative study of teachers’ perception on the use of audio-visual Aids in Senior or Junior secondary schools in Ebonyi state.
- The Availability of Electronic Audio-visual Aids in schools for teaching and learning other subjects’ e.g. physics.
- The effect of involvement of teachers in the computer literacy campaign from 2012 to 2016.
5.6 Summary of the Study
Computer is seen as a very important subject because of it’s wide application or use in our world today, nearly every nation depends on computer for nearly everything.. A number of studies done in Nigeria have reported students’ under-achievement on this very subject (computer). This explains why some science and technology and education researchers, among others, have in recent times concentrated their research efforts on finding teaching strategies that promote teaching of science so as to increase achievements and elements in science. Consequent upon the foregoing, this study sought to examine the effect of the use of Audio-Visual Materials on students’ academic achievement in Computer. To give a sense of direction to the study, three research questions were asked and three hypotheses formulated and tested at p<0.05.
The study adopted a quasi-experimental design approach, because there was no randomization of subjects into treatment and control groups. The design was a 2×2 factorial design, representing two levels of treatment: the Audio-Visual package for Computer Studies instruction (experimental group), and the Conventional Computer Instruction (control group); and two levels of gender (male and female).
The study area was Ebonyi state, from where the researcher randomly selected two local governments (Abakaliki and Onicha) while the population of the study consisted of JSS 1 students in the two secondary schools randomly selected from the two local government. In carrying out the research, the researcher chose two co-educational secondary schools within the study area by simple random sampling. One intact class was drawn from each school by simple random sampling and each class was assigned to the two groups by paper balloting. A total of 100 students composed the sample of the study.
Two instruments were developed by the researcher for the study; Computer Studies Achievement Test (COMSAT) and Audio-Visual Package for Computer Studies Instruction (AVPCSI) on Computer. The COMSAT was subjected to face and content validity by experts in Measurement and Evaluation and Science Education in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The final draft of COMSAT was administered to 25 JSS 1 students in one of the secondary schools in Abakaliki local government that was not used for the main study. These students’ scores were used to compute the coefficient of internal consistency of the COMSAT, which was found to be 0.73 (See appendix I).
All the students that partook in the study were administered the COMSAT as pre-test before the study and their scores were recorded. The students in the two treatment groups were taught four topics in computer with the aid of an audio-visual material (AVPCSI). The second group being the control group was taught the same four topics in computer using conventional method of instruction. One teacher taught the two groups. The COMSAT was administered to the students again as post-test to determine the effects of the treatment on their mean achievement.
The data generated from the study were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for answering the three research questions, while analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test all the three hypotheses at 0.05 significant levels. The result from the data analyzed showed that:
- The use of audio-visual materials as an instruction method was a significant factor in students’ overall achievement, as those exposed to the use of AVM performed better than their counterparts who were taught using conventional instruction method.
- Gender was a significant factor in the students’ overall achievement in computer studies, the male students achieved better than their female counterparts.
- There was significant interaction effect of teaching method and gender in the students’ overall achievement in computer studies.
Following the discussion of these findings, the educational implications of these findings were pointed out. The limitations of the study were also highlighted and suggestions for further areas of research made. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the use of Audio-Visual as an instructional technique or method should be employed and made effective in computer teaching as a means of improving academic achievement of students.
The results of this study demonstrated that Audio-visual materials(AVM) was an effective instructional technique for teaching computer. The results were also in consonance with results of many studies demonstrating the effectiveness of AVM for better student’s achievement, in science and mathematics as done by (Anzaku Francis, 2011); Swank, R.C (2011). It can therefore be concluded that a relationship exists between the use of audio-visual materials and achievement of students in computer. Results of the study showed that there was a significant difference between male and female students’ achievement in computer when exposed to the treatment.
Furthermore, AVM can be used as an alternative instructional method to the conventional method of teaching the various topics in computer since it proved to be more effective.
It can be concluded that this study has provided strong evidence of the usefulness of AVM in teaching and learning of computer; it will therefore be very helpful if attention is paid to this study. By using AVM, learning is made easy and content retention high.
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