Effects Of Activities Of Land Speculators On Women Farmers Crop Output And Income (A Case Study Of Kuje Area Council Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria)
This study examined the effects of the activities of land speculators on the livelihood of women farmers in Kuje Area Council Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Twelve villages were randomly selected from Kuje while ten percent (10%) of the population of each villages were randomly selected given a total respondents of one hundred and thirty four (134) women farmers, also sixty land speculators were interviewed during the survey period from May to September 2014. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Result from the analysis revealed that large numbers of women farmers were affected by activities of land speculators resulting to low crop output and low income.
The study further revealed that death of members of families, confiscation of land, invasion on land, destruction of crops and double allocation had negative influence on crop output and income at 1%, 5%, and 10% respectively. The result of the study showed that lack of finance to purchase or rent land is women farmers’ major constraints to land acquisition in the study area. The study therefore recommended that the Land Use act of 1978 should be reviewed periodically to accommodate population increase and the demand for agricultural land, and there should be provision for support services and rural finance by establishing cottage industries in farming communities by Kuje Area Council and NGO’s to enhance quality life of rural farmers.
1.1 Background to the Study
In Nigeria, agriculture is one of the most important sectors of notable economic relevance in her economic development and growth (Jonadab, 2006). It accounts for more than one-third of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP), ensures food security, alleviate poverty and reduce labor force wastage (IFAD, 2009). Nigeria Human Development Index (HDI) value for 1989 was 0.459 in the low human development category, positioning the country at 156 out of 187 countries (UNDFW, 2007) and in 2014; it was 0.471 positioning the country at 153 out of 187 countries (WB, 2000). In order to reduce poverty situation in Nigeria, especially in the rural communities, women must have rights to enough land and other natural resources in order to produce enough food, generate income for her family and earn foreign exchange for the nation (Idris,
Agricultural activities are carried out on land to produce agricultural products. Therefore land is primarily required for the production of food for human and animal consumption. Importance of agriculture also include cultivation of plants for fibre, fuel and other organically derived products (Ken and Cotic, 2005). There is a great advocacy on focusing on investing in women in agriculture as farmers, fishers or workers in agroprocessing and marketing of agricultural produce, yet women farmers do not have equal access to resources, but do the bulk of farm work (Enete and Achike, 2008).
According to Food and Agricultural Organization (2003) in many developing countries women are the backbone of the agriculture. In some countries, they are even the majority of small hold farmers. Women farmers do not have access to resources and this significantly limit their potentials in food production. Effiand and Gold (1998) reported that women are at severe disadvantage when it comes to security of land or owning land out rightly, owning livestock, accessing financial services, receiving the kind of extension services and resources that enable them increase their output. Women do not secure land tenure rights for a number of reasons which include population explosion and land speculation. Land speculation is one of the causes of land scarcity as land that are available are purchased with hope that prices will increase (Obisola, 2012).
1.2 Problem Statement
The Land use Act No.6 of March, 1978 purported to take over the ownership and control of land in the country is not providing uniform legal basis for a comprehensive national land tenure system (Aluko and Amidu, 2006). Unfortunately, the objectives of this land use Act promulgated has not been realized or fulfilled; they have been distorted, abused and seriously undermined and are largely beneficial to land speculators (Oweiet al,2008). Scarcity of land caused by land speculators has seriously affected the rights of small scale farmers in Abuja and its environs, hindering farmers from enjoying land and the natural fruits in sufficient quantity that will enable them provide for and sustain themselves and their family members. The situation is that land is mainly in the hands of speculators, thus holding most of the farmers to inevitable state of perpetual lack of agricultural land (World Bank, 2002).While purchase of large areas of land by speculators reached an alarming level (Oweiet al, 2008). Most of the purchases are done by wealthy farmers and non-farmers who hold the land idle waiting to capitalize on appropriate market opportunities, while food production is on the decline in the study area.
The right to land by many women farmers in the study area has reduced drastically due to speculation activities which include litigation and confiscation of land (Owaiet al, 2008). The gap in knowledge to be filled is to identify who this land speculators are, those who are involved in its processes and how land speculators activities affect crop output and income of women farmers in the study area. In view of the above, therefore, this research sought to address some important questions as follows:
- What are the socio-economic characteristics of land speculators in the study area?
- What are the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers in the study area?
- What are the activities of land speculators in the study area?
- What are the level of women access to land in the study area?
- What are the effects of the activities of land speculators on women farmers’ crop output and income in the study area ?
- What are women farmers constraints to land acquisition in the study area ?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to examine the effects of the activities of land speculators on women farmers crop output and income in Kuje Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. The specific objectives of the study are to:
- Describe the socio-economic characteristics of land speculators in the study area;
- Describe the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers in the study area;
- Identify the activities of land speculators in the study area;
- Examine the level of women access to land in the study area;
- Determine the effects of the activities of land speculators on women farmers’ crop output and income, and
- Identify women farmers constraints to land acquisition in the study area.
1.4 Justification of the Study
In many developing countries women produce nearly half of the food produced (UNFW, 2007). They play a crucial role in all farm related activities from land preparation to marketing of agricultural produce.Often they do not have security right to the land they farm and are denied equal rightor access to inherit or ownit. As a result these women are at increased risk of losing their sources of food, income and shelter
Most farmers lose their land rights through government interventions, sale and purchase of such farmland. Others inherit holdings too small to meet their farming aspirations, while others are farming under unsecured land right which deterred meaningful investment (Dutse, 2006). Although women rarely have title to land, they commonly have rights to use their husbands and relatives land (FAO, 2003). However, this holdings may be small and on less fertile land and their rights to use land are threatened when alternative uses such as sale and purchase of land is presented (Unamma, 2004).
The study is expected to provide empirical information require to plan effective ways to improve land use efficiency by women farmers and stimulate productivity and agricultural growth in the study area. It will equally help policy makers to take note of the effects of land speculation on food production when making any agricultural policy for the area.
This study becomes imperative as the area of study is an agricultural zone in the FCT. It will provide knowledge on the nature and sale of agricultural land which is now prevalent in the area, thus providing useful information that can form the basis for effective policy making on agricultural land use. It will also serve as reference material to students and stakeholders for further studies on the general effects of activities of land speculators on food production which could contribute in building a theory of land speculation and effects on agricultural production.
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
- Ho1: There is no significant relationship between activities of land speculators crop output and income of women farmers in the study area.
- Ha1: There is significant relationship between activities of land speculator crop output and income of women farmers in the study area.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary of the Finding
From the summary on the socio-economic characteristics of the land speculators, it was discovered that84 percent of land speculators were males. Majority (79 percent) of them were youth of between 30 – 40 years of age. The land speculators’ had an average age of35.5 years. Majority (63) percent of them were married, few (37) percent of them have family size of between 2- 5.The women had average family size of 3 and they are
Investigation on socio-economic characteristics of the women farmers showed that some (45) percent of them were between the age bracket of 31 – 40 years and an average age of35.5 years, majority (90) percent of them were married while more than half (57) percent of them had family size of between 5 – 8members and an average family size of 6.5. Thirty seven percent of the women farmers were literate who attained secondary school level of education. Some (37) percent of the women had6 – 10 years farming experience with an average of 8 years farming experience while about30 percent of them had extension contacts of once in a month. Majority (60 percent) of the women farmers were not members of cooperative associations. Few (18) percent of the women farmers had financial assistance from their husbands for farming operations. Majority (74) percent of the farmers had financial assistance in cash and majority (84) percent collected less than N10,000.00as loan for their farming operation. The average loan collected by the women was N5000.
The result on women’s level of access to land in the study area showed that some of the women (34) percent had access to land of between 1 – 2 hectares while some (34) percent of them owned between 1 – 2hectares of land and average of 1.5 hectares of land while majority (90) percent of them made decision on planting period, investment on farm and types of crops to produce. Majority (63) percent of the women farmers had economic trees on their farm while33 percent of them covered 5 – 9 kilometers with the average distance covered as 10.5 kilometers.
The result of multiple regression analysis carried out on effect of activities of land speculators on crop output showed that out of 10 variables, number of killing as a result of land speculation contributed 5342.443to the reduction of women farmers output at 10 percent level of probability, number of land confiscated contributed -4520.764to the reduction of women farmers’ output at 5 percent level of probability, number of times land was invaded contributed -3368.725to the reduction of women farmers’ output at 10 percent level of probability, destruction of crops contributed -3118.519to the reduction of women output at 10 percent level of probability, while double allocation of land contributed-4972.431to the reduction of women crop output at 1 percent level of probability while litigation contributed -3012.816to the reduction of women output at 10 percent level of probability. This implies that the mentioned variables have contributed to the reduction of women farmers’ crop output at various level of probability in the study area.
The result of regression analysis on effects of the activities of land speculators on women farmers income showed that the variables, number of litigation led to reduction of women income byN7729.187, number of times land was invaded led to reduction of women income by N5386.486, double allocation led to the reduction of women income by N8455.006, number of land confiscated led to the reduction of women income by N7273.497 while number of times crops were destroyed led to reduction of women income by N9858.689.This result shows that variables mentioned are responsible for low income level of the women farmers in the study area.
The result of the study on constraints to land acquisition by women farmers’ showed that 37 percent and 28 percent of the women farmers indicated lack of finance and population explosion as constraints to land acquisition in the study area.
In conclusion, the result of this study showed that majority of the land speculators are youth males of average age of 35.5, they literate and are married with average family size of 3. Majority of the women farmers are young and of average age of 35.5 and have average family size of 7. They are married and are literate, they owned small farm size. From the regression analysis result, some of the activities of land speculators are negatively significant to crop output and income ,resulting in low crop output and reduction of income among the women farmers’ in the study area. There are many constraints to land acquisition among which women in the study area indicated that lack of finance as a result of poverty among the rural women farmers.
Based on the above findings, the following recommendations have been made to enhance improvement in level of living of women farmers in the study area.
- Investigation on land acquisition on Table 4.23 shows that about 13 percent of the women farmers acquired their land through government allocation which signifies that there is no equity in land distribution. To bring about equity and justice in land distribution the land use Act of 1978 should be reviewed and amended to make it effective or it should be repealed since its impact is not felt by the women farmers’ to enable the traditional land tenure system operate properly. This is because of its support for speculation of landed property leaving the bulk of large number of farmers without land right.
- Investigation on the major crops of the farmers indicated that crop output of the women farmers are low and as such should be encouraged by extension agents on the use of improved seeds, insecticides and herbicide to improve their output.
- The Federal government should provide the institutional and legal framework that is conducive for agricultural growth. The provision of support services especially extension, research and rural finance, necessary for the uptake of improve agricultural technologies. The government should enhance agricultural credit and financing scheme through improvement of access to credit by women farmers. Accessibility to credit will make it possible for increase in size of their holdings through purchase or rent of farm land. If the farm size is increased there will be need for promotion of the use of modern agricultural technologies to enable the women increase their scale of production, reduce drudgery and save time.
- It was discovered that women farmers output and income were discouraging, therefore, non-governmental organizations and agricultural agencies should embark on establishment of cottage industries in farming communities, to enable them generate more income and facilitate improvement in the quality of life of the rural women farmers through their involvement in rural microeconomic activities.
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
The major contributions of this study to knowledge are as follows:
The activities of land speculators identified were killing of members of the families, maiming of members of the families, hoarding of land, confiscation of land, destruction of crops, double allocation of land, encroachment on land, litigation, invasion on land and destruction of properties in the study area.
The finding shows that 66 percent of the women farmers own their farm land. Thirty four percent of the women farmers owned land size of 1-2 hectares. On the average the women own 1.5 hectares of land.
The regression analysis result showed that killing of family members contributed 5342.4 much to increase women farmers’ crop output at 10 percent level of probability, invasion on land contributed -3368.7 to reduction of crop output at 1 percent level of probability, double allocation of land has contributed -4520.8 to reduction of women crop output at 10 percent level of probability, destruction of crops has contributed 3118.5 to the reduction of women crop output at10 percent level of probability. A unit of litigation led to reduction in women income by ₦7729.2, invasion on land led to a reduction in women income by ₦5386.5, double allocation of land has led to reduction in women income by ₦8455, confiscation of land has led to a reduction in women income by ₦7273.5 and destruction of crops has led to a reduction in women income by ₦9858.7. All these variables specified in the model contributed 44 percent to the variation of both women farmers, crop output in the study area.
The constraints to women farmers’ land acquisition showed that 37 percent of women farmers had constraints of finance, secondly 28 percent of the women farmers had constraints of population explosion while only 4percent had constraints of Government distance from the farmers in the study area.
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