Effectiveness Of Strategic Marketing And Management On The Sustenance Of Growth In Nigerian Tertiary Institution (A Case Study Of Lagos State University)

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Effectiveness Of Strategic Marketing And Management On The Sustenance Of Growth In Nigerian Tertiary Institution (A Case Study Of Lagos State University)


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The implication of marketing is that even though “customer orientation (a derivative- of marketing concept) has become a familiar slogan, with pride of place in the strategy statements of many organizations,” the god of actually implementing the customer orientation has continually been deceptively innocuous” (Nwankwo, 1995). The implication is that marketing is often restricted and viewed- from them. prison of commercial lenses.

This situation has led pessimists of educational market, in- particular, to argue that applying marketing to educational issues is unethical, part of the-jr fear being that merit may be compromised for commercial gains. Such cynicisms emanate from the narrow conceptualization- accorded to marketing by those dismissing it as nothing but a profiteering instrument. However, marketing is far being that, rather, it has long been recognized as an instrument for organizational renewal-:efficient re-source allocation; and sustaining new market though product, service- and process innovation.

This is consistent with the believe that universities are currently perceived as typical business—like enterprises, where the student as a consumer seeks a business—like relationship with the producer (Lecturer) who delivers the knowledge, skills and competencies they want (Newton,2002.) University marketization infuses customer need into the following this tradition, informed opinion in the literature now agrees that knowledge and ideas which are not chandelled to solve problems are worthless (Rokpe, 1998) it in the context that this paper advocates for a market oriented university structure in Nigeria.

Thus subsequent broadening of the concept, marketing which nightly brought into context the foundational role of marketing as a social process (Kotler and Lay, 1969), has provided the desired conceptual robustness that captures the role marketing within the human society. Admittedly, early works (Levi, 1960; Kotler and Levy, 1976; Hunt, 1 976) in the area of broadening, the scope of the marketing concept have been in valuable. However, despite this conceptual boarding, marketing in the context of university management has continued to receive limited attention in Nigeria. Paradoxically, existing literature (Drucker 1958; Bayer, 1968, Bakar, 1996, Onah, 2000; Oguwo, 2003, 20005a) has continued to direct attention to the fact feet that understood to direct attention to the feel that underdeveloped and developing economics could benefits from modern marketing in solving their development from the modem marketing in solving their university management.


1.2 Statement Of Problems

To date limited research has, been directed at linking university management to the marketing process in Nigeria. Public universities in Nigeria are known to be overly state dependence nether than market dependence which have stifle the growth and development of these higher institutions as centre of excellence. Tertiary institutions do not believe in the adoption of strategic marketing management as a tool of repositioning the institutions for national development which has impeded the growth of the tertiary institutions.


1.3 Research Question

The relevant research questions that are answered in this study are as follows:

  1. What is marketing in general form?
  2. Can Marketing ideas be applied to Tertiary Education?
  3. How can the Tertiary institutions benefits from the strategic marketing management.
  4. How can the Tertiary institutions shifts from the overly state dependence to market oriented approach.

1.4 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of the study include the following.

  1. To find out how marketing ideas can be applied to education.
  2. To scrutinize to what extend has the Tertiary institutions engage in the market oriented approach.
  3. To find out the extent to which the Tertiary institutions have started inculcating marketing concepts into the management of the citadel of learning.
  4. To determine the importance of strategic marketing management in the day to day mining of an organisation in which Tertiary institutions is not exempted.
  5. To examine the environment of university management in Nigeria with a view identifying problem areas that could benefits from the marketing concept.
  6. Propose market oriented as a strategic choice for effective and efficient management of Nigerian Tertiary institutions.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The study will attempts to and raise the following hypothesis:

  1. H0: The Tertiary institutions have not adopt the market oriented concept as tool of strategic management to achieve growth.
    H1: The Tertiary institutions have adopted the market oriented concept as a tool of strategic management to achieve growth.
  2. H0: The Tertiary institutions are not market oriented entrepreneurial institutions.
    H1: The Tertiary institutions are market oriented entrepreneurial institutions.
  3. H0: The use of marketing mix is not an effective tools of management in the growth of Tertiary institutions.
    H1: Marketing mix is an effective tools of management which promote growth in Tertiary institutions.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The study will go a long way in necessitating a proactive stance on maximizing the appeal of the institutional brand so as to recruit desirable students and ensure that the institution’s Strategic goals are achieved. It will also ensure that institutional brand has the effect of reducing perceived risk for consumer (the students) and allowing the higher institution a degree of stability in the market place.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

The research work covers the effectiveness of Strategic marketing management on the Sustenance of growth in Nigeria tertiary institutions. Since it is not possible to visit every tertiary institution in Nigeria, the studywas limited to only Lagos State University which is one of the Tertiary institutions in Lagos State of Nigeria.


1.8 Delimitation Of Study

  1. Every research endeavour is bedeviled with one constraint or the other of which this study is not an exception. Therefore, this Study has the following limitations.
  2. Inadequately of relevant materials (Journals, Articles and Books) on the research topic which makes it impossible to do an indept review of relate writings.
  3. Time and also financial constraints also played it part in making the study not as robust as expected.
  4. The Study itself covers only one tertiary institution in Nigeria out of 72 public universities and 45 private universities. Therefore the findings made in this study cannot be generalized for all the universities in Nigeria.

1.9 Definition Of Terms

Marketing:

Deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs.

Strategic Management:

It consist of a spies of steps which are followed relatively and continuously to keep and organisation appropriately matched to its operating environment.

Marketing Oriented:

Is the implementation of the Marketing concept within the organisation.

Marketing Mix:

is a set of flour decisions which need to be taken before launching any new product: they include; product, price, place and promotion.


1.10 University Education In Nigeria: A Contextualization

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and accounts for about 25 percent of SSA population its first university college offered degree jointly with the university of London Clark and Sedgwick (2004). A fully fledged university. The University of Nigeria at Nsukka- was established in 1960 and between 1961 arid 1970, five more universities were added. These universities were fully funded by federal government.

Following Nigeria’s independence from Britain in 1960, the government of the day spontaneously embraced he as a veritable tool for development. This policy thrust found justification and legitimacy m the general belief their economic and social development; and that university education is a particularly important in creating such a knowledge driven society and economy (Saint er al: 2004): thus He was rightly situated as a critical and highly sensitive investment area, which represented the most common denominator of development and equality of life. Ever since Nigeria (and indeed the rest of SSA) promoted HE as a credible strategic choice for development.

This understanding formed the basis for the 1985 and 1987 meetings of these governments in Mbabane and Harare respectively (Association of African Universities (AAU) 1985, 1987). Which fitted into the Lagos plan action for Economic Development of Africa: 1980—2000 (Organisation of Africa Unity (OAU), 2001) and Africa’s priority programme for economic recovery 1986—1990 (OAU) 1985) in its most recent document reiterated their belief in the role of HE is eradicating poverty and fostering sustainable growth and development of the region. in particular as part of its action plan to bridge the education gap in Africa and NEPAD document accepts the strengthening of universities across Africa as a strategy fostering development in the region. Given these orthodoxies, African government under took the project of university financing as a strategic choice for natural development.

Unfortunately in Nigeria (and perhaps some others in SSA) have been affected by the existing perennials problems in universities management in the region problems their include: poor finding: inefficiency resulting from dilapidated teaching and learning infrastructure equality and governance (Saint el al: 2004). in the case of Nigeria, this has a serious impact on the productivity of the educational sector reflected in the low number of Nigerians in scientific and technological research positions and publications and increasing number of Nigerians seeking. admission to universities overseas, it has been reported that Nigeria has 15 scientists and engineers that are engaged in research and development per million persons: ampared to 168 in Brazil 459 in China, 158 in India, and 4103 in the United stares (World Bank, 2002).

The number of scientific publications has dropped from 1062 in 1981 to 711 in 1995. Compared to 3413 in South Africa, 14833 in India, 310 in Indonesia and 5440 in Brazil (Task force, 2000, as cited in saint et al: 2004) The problem of under-finding has brought with it numerous problems that are challenging the continued legitimacy of the universities as centres of excellence for research and researching. This development coupled with the absence of crucial infrastructure and requisite man power has impeded the healthy development of He in Nigeria, a situation Ogum (2001,) describes as “the learning ivory tower” Osisioma (2006,) captures the effects of the extremely excessive control of universities in Nigeria thus:

The legacy of government in the running of these institutions of higher education has been a mixed bag of the good, the bad and the ugly with government participation in education, came same ignoble development. Inconsistent policies and poorly articulated plans intruded upon the system. Government intervention in the day – to- day administration of these institutions, often displaced academic and professional consideration with other mundane contemplation: over ambitious expansion in student population without a commensurate increase in facilities.


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