The Effectiveness Of Rewards And Punishment In Promoting Discipline Among Secondary School Students

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The Effectiveness Of Rewards And Punishment In Promoting Discipline Among Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of rewards and punishment in promoting discipline among secondary school students in Jalingo local government in Taraba State. The study was specifically set to ascertain the perception of the teachers on the effects of rewards and punishment, establish whether reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations, determine whether punishment have impact on correcting deviant behavior among secondary school students and investigate whether the use of reward and punishment is effective in promoting discipline among secondary school student. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students some students of selected secondary schools in Jalingo local government in Taraba State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 229 respondents and 210 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations.Furthermore the result of the findings reveals that the use of reward and punishment effective in promoting discipline among secondary school student. Therefore, it is recommended that the process of managing students’ acts of indiscipline in schools should start with the identification of the type of student enrolled in schools. Because it is only when the personal psychological makeup of the students is known that one can device the appropriate methods of managing them to the desirable standard. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The development towards variable accountability to persons other than the parents is significant. The child’s individuality is molded by pressure and changes in his society. The child’s development is also influenced by those around him or his parents, other adults, his peers, and other siblings. Many pressures of the society in which the child lives are also reflected upon him as they affect behavior of those who are rearing and teaching him. Guiding the development of a child is a cooperative process. The parent and teacher need to see the whole child as he reacts in his life at school and at home in order to provide a complete program for him.

The problem of indiscipline is more apparent among learners across the education spectrum (Kerlinger, 1986). By sending the child to school the parent was assumed to accept the authority of the school to administer punishment within the limits set by law (i.e. the common law). Current research shows that cases of learner indiscipline are on the increase in Nigeria and in some cases, learners are alleged to have murdered others in school premises (Harber et al, 2001). The learner indiscipline cases reported in schools raised concerns about the safety of schools and classroom environments. Nigeria educators suggested that alternative measures to corporal punishment were not very effective in curbing learner indiscipline in schools (Zulu et al, 2004). There are arguments for the use of corporal punishment but with the thrust on protection of students’ rights and the documented negative effects of corporal punishment (Zaibert, 2006), there is increasing need for teachers to beware of effective alternative measures and embrace them.

Tuluhi and Bello (2000) assert that indiscipline is the breaking of rules and regulations of institutions. Individuals willingly or unwillingly violate laid down rules of an institution, which hampers the smooth running of the institution. To this end, indiscipline can simply be seen as a way of life not in conformity with rules and non -subjection to control. By extension, the term connotes the violations of school rules and regulations capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system (Adeyemo, 2005). School rules and regulations in most cases do affect students more than any other thing because they are made by the school authorities in order to guide and protect the students while in school. Learners in preschool have often depicted activities and behavior that is not in conformity to the laid down school rules and regulations or even responding appropriately to the teacher’s instructions. Administrators have attributed indiscipline among school students to certain biological changes signaling maturity in the course of their growth and development and to other environmental and social factors that influence behavior (Mukharjee; 2005). High behavioral expectations are characteristic of every school. In contrast to poorly disciplined schools, staff in well-disciplined schools share and communicate high expectations for appropriate student behavior (Piazza, et al., 2007). Rules, sanctions and procedures are developed with input from students, are clearly specified and made known to everyone in the school.

Researchers such as Short (2008) have found that student participation in developing and reviewing school discipline programs creates a sense of ownership and belonging. Widespread dissemination of clearly stated rules and procedures ensures that all students and staff understand what is and is not acceptable (Short, 2008). Smedley and Willower (2001) assert that a warm social climate, characterized by a concern for students as individuals is typical of well-disciplined schools. Teachers and administrators take an interest in the personal goals, achievements, and problems of students and support them in their academic and extracurricular activities. Many poorly disciplined schools have principals who are visible only for “official” duties such as assemblies or when enforcing school discipline. In contrast, principals of well-disciplined schools tend to be very visible in hallways and classrooms, talking informally with teachers and students, speaking to them by name, and expressing interest in their activities. Such Principals in well-disciplined schools take responsibility for dealing with serious infractions, but they hold teachers responsible for handling routine classroom discipline problems. They assist teachers to improve their classroom management and discipline skills by arranging for staff development activities as needed.

Doyle (2009) and Miller (2006) propose in-school suspension programs which include guidance, support, planning for change and opportunities to build new skills. These have been demonstrated to be effective in improving individual student behavior and thus increasing school order. However, structures in which students are given rewards (e.g., verbal, tangible, or privileges) and sanctions (e.g., loss of privileges, such as television time, snacks, or later bedtime) at home, based on their behavior at school, have been shown to improve student behavior (Atkeson & Forehand 2009).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The value of discipline in a person’s life and growth cannot be overstated. Pupils, by their very nature, make errors, and it is not uncommon to discover students in preschool who engage in aberrant conduct that may result in punishment. Both preschool instructors and parents have a responsibility to play in ensuring that any incidences of indiscipline are dealt with appropriately through the use of various discipline methods. The primary goal for this study was to see how Nigerian teachers and parents deal with these issues through the use of incentives and punishment. In their study, Houghton, Merrett, and Wheldall (2018) discovered that children believed praise and reward were suitable for excellent behavior and good performance, and that the quantity of praise and blame they got in school was approximately correct. In terms of both their work and their behavior, the vast majority of students stated they valued their professors’ opinions above those of their classmates. A letter sent from school to parents was thought to be particularly powerful for both praising and punishing their children’s outstanding performance and behavior. This emphasizes the significance of tight cooperation between the family and the school. These findings closely resemble those of a comparable poll of secondary school students. This study therefore sought to examine the effectiveness of the use of rewards and punishment in promoting discipline among secondary school students.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of rewards and punishment in promoting discipline among secondary school students, specifically the study intends to:

  1. Ascertain the perception of the teachers on the effects of rewards and punishment.
  2. Establish whether reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations.
  3. Determine whether punishment have impact on correcting deviant behavior among secondary school students.
  4. Investigate whether the use of reward and punishment is effective in promoting discipline among secondary school student.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions was formulated to guide this research arrive at a valid conclusion:

  1. What is the perception of the teachers on the effects of rewards and punishment?
  2. Does reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations?
  3. Does punishment have impact on correcting deviant behavior among secondary school students?
  4. Does the use of reward and punishment is effective in promoting discipline among secondary school student?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The use of rewards and punishment can not promote discipline among secondary school students.
  • Ha: The use of rewards and punishment can not promote discipline among secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will help to lay more emphasis on the effective use of reward and punishment by policy makers. Those who plan the curriculum in the primary schools will be well equipped with the effects of reward and punishment in our primary schools. it will also be of great benefit to the teachers, parents and to the ministry of education because it will provide them useful information about the roles of reward and punishment as a means of enhancing learning in our society at large. Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve a s reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies on related topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the effect of rewards and punishment in promoting discipline among secondary school students. The study will further discuss the perception of the teachers an student on the effects of rewards and punishment. It will establish whether reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations and determine whether punishment have impact on correcting deviant behavior among secondary school students. The study is however delimited to selected secondary schools in Jalingo local government in Taraba State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only education selected secondary schools in Jalingo local government in Taraba State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary school in other States within Nigeria.

Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Reward:

Is a satisfaction of needs for a whole series of responses/an act of appreciation a job well done.

Punishment:

The withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus as a consequence of behaviour. An act of correcting a wrong “act” or character exhibited.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effectiveness of rewards and punishment in promoting discipline among secondary school students in Jalingo local government in Taraba State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine on the effectiveness of rewards and punishment in promoting discipline among secondary school students in Jalingo local government in Taraba State. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the perception of the teachers on the effects of rewards and punishment, establish whether reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations, determine whether punishment have impact on correcting deviant behavior among secondary school students and investigate whether the use of reward and punishment is effective in promoting discipline among secondary school student.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 210 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudents of selected secondary schools in Jalingo local government in Taraba State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The perception of the teachers on the effects of rewards and punishment is positive.
  2. Reward influences student’s respect for and conformity to school rules and regulations.
  3. Punishment have impact on correcting deviant behavior among secondary school students.
  4. The use of reward and punishment effective in promoting discipline among secondary school student.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Whenever children make a mistake, they should be corrected in the best way possible so that they can grow to be responsible persons.
  2. Parents should not leave the burden of disciplining their children to the teacher- they should complement their efforts by disciplining the child whenever he/she is away from school.
  3. Adults should set good examples to the young ones by behaving in the required manner- this should especially begin with the parents.
  4. The process of managing students’ acts of indiscipline in schools should start with the identification of the type of student enrolled in schools. Because it is only when the personal psychological makeup of the students is known that one can device the appropriate methods of managing them to the desirable standard.
  5. Corporal punishment and expulsion should be discouraged among the teachers because of their negative psychological effects on the students as established by the scholars.
  6. Behaviour modification techniques should be employed to manage unruly behaviours of the students as alternative to expulsion and corporal punishments of different kind.
  7. Each school should have a functioning disciplinary committee that sees to every cases of acts of indiscipline of the students and which should be headed by a trained guidance counsellor.
  8. A wholesome approach to manage students discipline should be adopted by all the school administrators and managers.
  9. Each school should have a set of rules and regulations that will guide all actions and in –actions of the students during school hours and should be constantly read to the hearing of all students.

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Frequently Asked Questions


How much does the level of student discipline increase with pre-test scores?

This study was analyzed using a quantitative descriptive technique. The study results as a whole are that there was an increase in the level of student discipline by 9.11% with the acquisition of pre-test scores of 76.68% and post-test of 85.78%.

How to improve student discipline behavior at schools?

One of the most effective ways to improve student disciplinary behavior at schools is to carry out physical activity. This research still has shortcomings and weaknesses; namely, the research was conducted in just one month. This allows further researchers to carry out research to improve student discipline for a longer time.

How do school rules and regulations affect behavior?

Generally, students’ awareness on school rules and regulations, parents’ education levels, civics and ethical education scores, and students’ attitudes toward promoting good behavior were found as significant effects on perception toward promoting good behavior. Perception on school rules and regulations in promoting good behavior.

What are the variables of school discipline?

Variables studied in the 26 documents include time-on-task, achievement, disruptions, student attitudes and self-concept, absenteeism, disciplinary referral, detention, suspension, and expulsion. 

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