The Effectiveness Of Public Relations Activities In Tertiary Institutions
The purpose of this study was to appraise public relations activities in tertiary institutions. The objective of this study is to appraise the public relations activities of the Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state on the image of the institution and to examine the level of students, staff and managements relation in the institution.
To guide this study a review of Literature was done to expose the researcher to what has already been done to ensure a solid conclusion for the study.
A structured questionnaires were developed and administered by the researcher to the respondents comprising the external public, staff and students.
Bouleys formula was used to determine the sample size for the staff and students while Topmans formula was used to determine the sample size for external public.
The data collected were from both primary and secondary sources and were duly analysed and presented in a manner in which they could be easily be understood and applied by whoever is interested in the work and its findings.
Chi-square was used to test the hypotheses formulated.
Having tabled the above findings and recommendations, the researcher therefore concludes that the onus is on the management to implement the recommendations to ensure continued satisfaction of its various publics.
1.1 Background of the Study
Public relations has become a potent marketing tool in modern business management in recent times. Its influence is being felt on both big and small firms with the influence of even greater expansion. It is important for management organization including tertiary institutions to understand its potential and limitations.
Nwokoye (1984:212) defined public relations as the activities of co – operations, union, government or other organisations in building and marketing sound and productive relations with special public such as customers, relations employees or stock holders and with public at large so as to adopt itself to its environment and interpret itself to the society.
Bush and Houston (1995:200) noted that public relations is management functions which evaluate public attitude, identifies policies and procedures of an individuals or an organisations with the public interest and execute a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
Chukwu (2000:3 – 4) stated that public relations practice is a management philosophy aimed at doing everything possible to create good relationship between one organization and its publics.
Public Relations is aimed at making friends for the organization and building internal and external good will on the reasonable assumption that these are strongly needed for an organization to remain in business and make profit with the increase in the activities of an organization. The need for an adequate communication between the organization and those who in one way or the other are affected by these activities of the organization becomes more imperative. An organization while wanting to remain liable, need to have good relations with its employees, consumers of its products and services, future investors, stock – holders and infact that is the general public. As an organization specialized in manufacturing to potential customers that is up to date, forward looking concerned to produce and offer the best goods and services for the rice it charges and make sure that its customers are really satisfied.
Edoga and Ani (2001:287) noted that a company should deliberately plan and execute a continuous public relations programme to develop a good relation between it and that various publics, amongst sought with public relations.
Stressing the position of public relations in the country, Olakunori (1999:194) noted that most officials occupying the public relations of various organizations in the country today are not professionals; they generally have a fair knowledge of what they are supposed to do.
Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP) as an institution or organization has the students, members of its staff, parents- teachers association, the management, the host society, the state and the federal government, Nigerian Universities commission (NUC) etc. as its relevant publics. This implies that the activities performed by AIFP in one way or the other affect those aforementioned various public. Therefore, in order to maintain its public relations with those bodies, AIFP must at all time try to create a rapport and understanding or goodwill with all those bodies. This it will do through proper information circulation between itself and those various relevant publics to it. This can be done by allowing the free flows of information, paying of salaries as and when due to its staff, engaging in proper and standard academic work, abiding by the rules and regulations of NUC in the performance of its activities.
Manufacturers and producers of goods and service are now aware that public relations does not only ensure good relations with the public but can strive towards profit making through increased customers patronage. It is in the light of the importance attached to public relations that the researcher seeks to appraise the effectiveness of public relations in service industries in Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP) as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A good corporate image is usually regarded to be essentials for the existence of an organization. The success or failure of a corporation depends on its relationship with its publics, consumers, employees, stock-holders, government, community, distributions, supplies and others. A favourable corporate image create confidence in an organisations or institution.
There has been occupational troubles in tertiary institutions as become the order of the day. But AIFP as always remained in sector despite the occasional occurrence of these ugly incidents. The questions that called for answer are:-
- Why has this problem of internal wrangle in our tertiary institutions?
- Why has AIFP not witness the major break down of law and order despite the increase in school fees?
- Why has AIFP been able to maintained peace despites the facts that there are some polities that do not go down well with the staff, lecturers and the students of the institute?
- To what extent has public relations contributed in maintenance of peace and harmony in the institutions these and many more are the central task of this research work.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To give focus to the study the following objectives are formulated:-
- To find out the level of attention given to the publics in Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP).
- To find out whether the institution have good relationship with the press.
- To examine the level of students, lecturers, staff and management relations in AIFP.
- To know how public relations help in improving communication between people and the organization.
- To recommend solution to problems on public relations identified.
- To determined the impact of public relations on consumers (students) patronage
- To appraise the public relations activities of Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP).
1.4 Research Hypothesis
Public Relations activities of AIFP
- Ho: Public Relations activities of AIFP does not lead to increase the awareness of their services
Hi: These lead to increase the awareness of their services.
- Ho: Public Relations activities of AIFP does not give attention to the student of the institution
H2: Public Relations activities of AIFP gives attention to the student of the institution.
- Ho: Public Relation activities of AIFP does not lead to increase (students) patronage.
H3: Public Relation activities of AIFP lead to increase (students) (students) patronage.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The most outstanding hope of this study is that, its finding will be of immense benefit to students, lecturers and staff of management of tertiary institutions. These will help to minimize conflicts in this institutions.
The study also gives an insight into the problem and practice of public relations in Nigeria Institutions of higher learning. This study by its objectives will not only assess the effectiveness of classified public relations, but all its application and uses generally. Therefore, when successfully carried out and documented, this study will serve as a source of relevant information to many institutions and organisations on ways of using public relations.
Finally, public relations practioners have been deprived of excellent performance in the operations because of scanty and insufficient data and adequate literature availability in this area.
This study when successfully completed and adequately supervised will be an addition to the essentials literature needed in public relations. Practitioners and consultants will therefore use it extensively for reference.
Based on forgoing, it becomes indisputable that the need for this study is worthwhile.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study covers public Relations activities in service industries and it will equally cover an over view of public relations in service industries. The role of public relations activities in improving the image of service industries especially tertiary institutions. Due to limited time and other constraints, emphases was placed on Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP). Despite the fact that Enugu State University is the only institution use as a case study, but the researcher believes that whatever happens to Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP) will equally apply to other institutions in the state.
1.7 Definition of Terms
This are some terms used in this research work
Enugu state university of science and technology
Nigerian Universities commission
Enugu State Broadcasting service
Institute of Management and Technology
This is the activities of cooperation, union, government or other organization in building and marketing sound and productive with the public.
This is an industry made up of companies that primary earn revenue through providing intangible product and services.
These are people employed by a firm or member of an organization.
These are people and organization that are client doing business with a firm or agency.
This is the various methods companies use to establish and maintain a mutual relationship with the public or community.
Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion
Having carefully analyzed data collected for the study using simple tables and hypothesis formulated, the researcher got very useful information on the effectiveness of public relations in service industries, a case study of Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP), Enugu.
The success or failure of a corporation depends on its relationship with its publics. A favourable corporate image create confidence in an organization or institution including AIFP.
There has been occasional trouble in tertiary institutions including AIFP; this no doubt has impacted negatively on the image of the institution.
The findings of the study are revealed:-
5.1 Summary of Findings
- The researcher discovered that the public relations activities of AIFP does not lead to increase the awareness of the services provided that is to say that the services of the institution is poor, the reason being that they lack effective public relations department.
- Public relations activities of AIFP has led to industrial harmony, this is evidenced by the fact that there has not been major strikes that lasted for a long time.
- Public relations activities of AIFP has also led to impact positively on students patronage of the institution.
- AIFP as an institution has the students, members of its staff, parent Teachers Association, the Management, the state and the federal government, Nigerian universities commission (NUC) etc as its relevant publics.
- The public relations activities of AIFP give attention to the students of the institution.
It is the researcher opinion based on the various findings that:
- AIFP should have to upgrade the quality of their services than that of other institutions by creating awareness of the services they provide. Also, the management of the institution should see themselves as one in a competitive environment struggling for leadership position, they need to innovate new methods of attending to their public distinct from other institutions.
- AIFP public relations department should be well funded. This will enable them to acquire more sophisticated equipment like computers, television, radio, public address system, printing machines, photocopying machines etc for improved public relations activities.
- This public relations functions should be clearly defined to avoid confusion in the institution; this includes their relationship with other publics
- Public relations is a two way communication the researcher therefore urges that public relations should not only emphasize on their publics but putting them into action in rendering of efficient and effective services.
- Public relations as a management of philosophy should be understood to include all effort towards achieving institutional goals and objectives, means of ensuring that all the department and of the institution are made known that their actions are what other publics will use in rating the institution.
Having tabled the above findings and recommendations, the researcher therefore assumed that the task lies on the management to implement them to ensure continued satisfaction of its various publics. In an inquisitive society like ours, it is necessary for all organization to readily publicize its activities so as to negate insinuation, even in employee relationship, adequate steps should be taken to inform employee about the organization.
Public relations is an indispensable marketing tools for company’s survival and growth. It is very imperative that the Federal polytechnic uwana ebonyi state (aifp)(AIFP) Enugu should maintain a good relationship with its publics in order to survive competition in the service.
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