Effectiveness Of The Mass Media In The Campaign Against Domestic Violence In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Chanel’s TV)

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Effectiveness Of The Mass Media In The Campaign Against Domestic Violence In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Chanel’s TV) – Charles


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain the extent mass media campaign are channeled against domestic violence in Nigeria, identify the various mass media channels deployed for an effective campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria, determine the level of Channel’s TV involvement in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria, and determine the effectiveness of Channels TV towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of Channels TV staffs in Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that Channels TV is effective towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that to effectively address the problem of this form of domestic violence in Nigeria, the media have to brace up to the task of uncovering cases of domestic violence by husbands, brothers, in-laws, gangs/boys, sects, etc and following up such cases in the court of law, intensifying effort at awareness creation, giving prominence to the reportage of cases of domestic violence, and devoting special page for discussion of domestic violence (in the case of print media). To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

There have been horrific reports of domestic violence in all the country’s nooks and crannies for some time in Nigerian society. If the news story about cults, prostitution, or factories that make babies is not trending in the country’s nooks and crannies, it can be about a husband killing his wife or vice versa. In many instances, it may be the result of a father abusing his daughter sexually in order to get understanding of her. Nigerian women have experienced barter rape and even murder at the hands of members of their own family, especially the nuclear family, for alleged transgressions ranging from failing to prepare meals on time to visiting relatives without their husband’s consent. Many families, especially women, suffer chemical and acid attacks by their spouses or partners, which result in excruciating pain or disfigurement and occasionally even result in the victims’ deaths (Simon, 2016). According to the American Psychiatric Association (2005) and Oifig and Tánaiste (1997), domestic violence can include physical, sexual, emotional, financial, and psychological abuse and affects all social groups in society.

Domestic violence is defined as the willful and ongoing abuse of any family member in a way that results in harm, suffering, or pain (Aihie Ose, 2009). It is any abusive treatment of a family member (physically or psychologically) by another person, which is against the law and a violation of fundamental human rights. It entails abusive behavior toward intimate partners and other people, sexual assault on children, marital rape, and detrimental customs for women. Domestic violence happens everywhere (Dahlberg and Krug, 2002, UNICEF, 2005). Domestic violence affects families in a variety of ways, affecting those from various socioeconomic, racial, educational, and religious origins. According to a report by Djaden and Thoennes (2002), each year in the United States, women encounter roughly 4.8 million physical attacks and rapes involving intimate partners, while men experience about 2.9 million such assaults. Domestic violence is apparently common in West Africa, and some communities even sanction it to some level.

In Nigerian society, domestic violence is not a recent phenomenon. We woke up to read of murder and other acts of violence. Domestic violence occurs in every sphere of society. It affects people of all ages, classes of working women and stay-at-home wives, religious believers and atheists, educated and illiterate people, married and unmarried people. Domestic violence is typically considered in local communities as the fault of women who nag, disobey, or attempt to usurp the man’s position as the head of the household. It is often referred as as a form of treatment that allows a guy to easily vent his rage or frustration on his wife or kids, who are seen to be “lesser beings.” Many women now concur that, depending on the situation, physical abuse may occasionally be acceptable. Most women in this situation suffer in silence, hoping one day their husbands will change their ways and have a change of heart. Another factor in the quiet is the stigma and humiliation it will cause.

It is challenging to estimate the level of domestic violence in Nigeria because the nation’s official statistics on this issue are inadequately recorded. Additionally, domestic violence occurrences frequently go undetected (ibid; AI 31 May 2005; Eze-Anaba 2006, 7; UK 25 May 2007, 96). Women are reported as avoiding reporting domestic violence due to a variety of factors, such as respect for tradition, ignorance of their legal rights (VOA, 4 June 2007), pressure from family members to maintain calm in the home, and fear of the abuser’s retaliation, the anxiety that their police report won’t be taken seriously, as well as the worry about their financial security (AI 31 May 2005). As a result, this study intends to critically examine the evaluation of the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The victims of domestic violence may experience psychiatric disorders as one effect of the assault. In Nigeria, women tend to be the targets of this antisocial behavior in some ways. The societal threat that has mostly endangered women and children has been addressed by a number of human rights organizations, civil society groups, and concerned individuals. The mainstream media is anticipated to have a crucial role in raising awareness of sexual violence incidents and amplifying the voices of those who are fighting against it.
High unemployment rates have been found to increase the frequency of domestic violence (Catalano, Lind, Rosenblatt and Novaco, 2003).

They discovered that jobless people could experience anger and frustration. They called this the “provocative effect” since it demonstrates how being unemployed engenders resentment in otherwise supportive personal relationships. Other risk factors include tradition and cultural norms in traditional African cultures that normalize child abuse and wife beating. Obi and Ozumba (2007) discovered that income inequality favoring women, powerful in-laws, educated women, and couples in the same age group were all strongly associated with domestic violence.

The communities, news organizations, religious organizations, institutions, bloggers, and the government at all levels must all be involved in the effort to combat the threat of domestic violence in Nigeria. Seminars and workshops must be organized, where experienced counselors will assist in spreading the anti-domestic violence campaign. To emphasize the fact that domestic violence acts as a breeding ground for violence in society, it is important to raise awareness at these forums. Therefore, the evaluation of the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study would be the main emphasis of this study.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study.

Other objectives of this study is to:

  1. Ascertain the extent mass media campaign are channeled against domestic violence in Nigeria.
  2. Identify the various mass media channels deployed for an effective campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.
  3. Determine the level of Channel’s TV involvement in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.
  4. Determine the effectiveness of Channels TV towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

The questions below will guide this study

  1. What is the extent mass media campaign are channeled against domestic violence in Nigeria?
  2. What are the various mass media channels deployed for an effective campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria?
  3. What is the level of Channel’s TV involvement in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria?
  4. What is the level of Channels TV effectiveness towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The Channels TV is not effective towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.
  • Ha: The Channels TV is effective towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study examines the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study. This study will concentrate on reports of domestic abuse from various social networking sites, including Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Whatsapp, Snapchat, and others, and it will raise users’ awareness of the value of using the media in society. In addition, by articulating statistics and other domestic violence-related issues as reported by the media, the general people can comprehend and recognize the gravity of that Anti social behavior. The study will also give the government the necessary information about the various domestic violence cases that exist in the nation as well as the solutions that are required for aiding victims of domestic violence, most notably by establishing rehabilitation facilities that will improve their social and psychological well-being. Additionally, because it provides academic exercise material and a framework for future research, this study will be helpful to adults, students, and mass communication researchers.


1.7 The Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study. The participant for this study will be obtained among Channels TV staffs in Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Domestic Violence:

The intentional and persistent abuse of anyone in the home in a way that causes pain, distress or injury

Mass Media:

It refers to a web based services that allow the individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view, and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effectiveness of the mass media in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria using Channels TV as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the extent mass media campaign are channeled against domestic violence in Nigeria, identify the various mass media channels deployed for an effective campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria, determine the level of Channel’s TV involvement in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria, and determine the effectiveness of Channels TV towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are Channels TV staffs in Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The mass media campaign are highly channeled against domestic violence in Nigeria.
  2. The various mass media channels deployed for an effective campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria includes; Newspapers, the social media, television, radio, and other electronic media.
  3. The Channel’s TV is highly involved in the campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.
  4. The Channels TV is effective towards the entrenchment of aggressive campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendations

  1. In the light of the above findings, this study recommends that, to effectively address the problem of this form of domestic violence in Nigeria, the media have to brace up to the task of uncovering cases of domestic violence by husbands, brothers, in-laws, gangs/boys, sects, etc and following up such cases in the court of law, intensifying effort at awareness creation, giving prominence to the reportage of cases of domestic violence, and devoting special page for discussion of domestic violence (in the case of print media).
  2. NGOs, and government should come up with campaigns that will encourage victims to report any form of abuse on the social media platforms that will lead to the clampdown of perpetrators of such acts.
  3. Various awareness programmes should be promoted via these social media platforms that would enable parents/guardians as well as victims to get the essential knowledge since most of them are very active on these platforms.
  4. Efforts to domesticate CEDAW and pass the Abolition of all forms of Discrimination Law and the Administration of Criminal Justice Law should be renewed. Hence, effective domestication of these laws should be decentralized and implemented at all levels of government

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