The Effectiveness Of New Information Technology On Public Relations Practice (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri)
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This project is dedicated to God Almighty the giver of wisdom and knowledge to complete this work.
I must express my most profound gratitude and thanks to God Almighty the giver of knowledge & success for his protection.
My thanks also goes to my supervisor MRS LINDA IKECHUKWU for going through this work and making the necessary corrections and guidelines. I am also greatful to my parents MR/MRS IKWUAGWU, my siblings and my friends GRACE, JUDGE, CYNTHIA, JUDITH, ONYEKA and well wishers may God bless you all Amen.
This research was carried out to assess the effectiveness of New Information Technology (NIT) on the practice of public relations, with particular interest in federal polytechnic Nekede (FPN) Owerri. This NIT facility is heavily involved in the process of online-assisted information sharing.
This research finding identified four problems areas of New Information Technology (NIT) and the practice of public relations. These are lack of awareness on the NIT facilities available, lack of new information technology literacy among the population and practices of public relations, knowledge of the full benefits accruable from such NIT facilities as a concern operations and general administration.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.1 Background of he study 1
- 1.2 Statement of problem 5
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 6
- 1.4 Research questions 7
- 1.5 Significance of the study 7
- 1.6 Scope of study 8
- 1.7 Limitations of the study 9
- 1.8 Definition of terms 10
Chapter Two:Literature Review
- 2.1 Organization, information data 13
- 2.2 Electronic data processing (EDP) 16
- 2.3 Data base management system (DBMS) 19
- 2.4 Internet 21
- 2.5 Public relations outfit 23
- 2.6 Benefits of new information technology 26
- 2.7 Summary of literature review 29
- 2.8 Theoretical frame work 32
Chapter Three:Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research design 33
- 3.2 Area of study 33
- 3.3 Population of study 34
- 3.4 Sample and sampling technique 34
- 3.5 Sources of data 35
- 3.6 Instrument for data collection 36
- 3.7 Validity of instrument 36
- 3.8 Administration of instrument 36
- 3.9 Method of data analysis 37
Chapter Four:Presentation And Analysis Of Data
- 4.1 Presentation of data and analysis 38
- 4.2 Summary of findings 46
Chapter Five:Summary Of Findings Conclusions And Recommendation.
- 5.1 Summary of findings 47
- 5.2 Conclusion 49
- 5.3 Recommendations 50
- References 51
- Appendix 53
- Questionnaires 54
1.1 Background Of The Study
It is no longer news that we are in an information age that is characterized by an ever changing of a new information technology revolution and an information superhighway of which every corporate entity or organization and profession must move. If it is to make any headway in the 21 century. However, many experts, professionals in the third world countries like Nigeria do not seem to be ready to embrace this new technological revolution. It is however very unfortunate that among those laggards is found many public relations partners, who are supposed to be the champions of a new information technology revolution.
Furthermore, the world of business and governance in the information age is complicated by such concepts, like democratization, competition, deregulation, privatization, communalization, globalization, computerization etc. that makes it impossible for an organization or country to survive and develop without adopting and applying varied information technology (NIT) strategies and gadget.
It is very pertinent to state here that public relations managers, as information and corporate communication expert must lead the way in this aspect. They have refused to take mantle of this leadership and our country and public relations profession are the worst of it.
A new information technology has been defined as a technology which supports activities involving the creation storage manipulation and communication of information, together with their related methods management and application (Dommick, Joseph (2002). Another definition has been proffered as that which is a seemless integration of telecommunication data processing and personal computing with manual business process which supports key business function and which improves effectively efficiency and quality of working life.
It will however, not be out of place to state here that while adopting this definition as the working definition of a new information technology the public relations executive must have an understanding of NIT as not only a communication system that emerged as a result of various integration of many other technologies but essentially the computer telecommunication satellite technologies. This is why it has in its earlier days been described as or associated with communication information, telemetric, computopia and new communication technology (Nwosu:2006).
Here, public relations (PR) can be defined as a management function that help the management team in any organization to effectively identify analyze and understand the changes in their internal and external environment as well as using the new information generated to design and implement appropriate management function that ensure regular systematic and effective collection, collation packaging and presentation.
It could be adduced from the foregoing that the locus classics of these public relations definitions are new technological communication some of the new technological means of information ordering storage manipulation and communication include:data processing (DP) data base, databank, data base management system (DBMS) the internet etc. the relevance of these a new information technology to the practice or public relations can be found from “new information technology application wheel (LAW) Nwosu 2000:30.
1.2 Statement Of Research Problem
This study became paramount when the researcher noticed a downward spiral on various new information technology facilities available for the practice of public relations in federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
This study is armed at finding a solution to the problems posed by new information technology (NIT) facilities which resulted to poor level of awareness, exposure and satisfaction of the institution audience or publics (internal and external).
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The objectives include:
- To find out the various new information technologies available for the public relations practice in federal polytechnic Nekede.
- To find out the level of awareness and satisfaction of federal polytechnic public of these facilities.
- To find out the application and influence of such NIT facilitated information on the administration of federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
- To find out the relationship between federal polytechnic performances as an organization and contribution of these NIT facilities to public relations practice.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the various new information technologies available for the practice of public relations in federal polytechnic Nekede.
- What is the level of awareness and satisfaction of federal polytechnic public of these facilities
- What is the application and influence of such NIT facilitated information on the administration of federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri.
- What is the relationship between federal polytechnic performances as an organization and contribution of these NIT facilities to public relations practice.
1.5 Significance Of Study
This study will be of great significance and of immense benefit to students, scholar’s researchers, public relations practioners and the general public. It will offer tremendous insight on the utilization of technology the age long up service approach and it’s advancement on the government and corporate organization in the country.
This research work will make the beneficiary go a long way in the technological advancement of federal polytechnic Nekede and will also make the institutions take her price of place as premier polytechnic in academic excellence.
1.6 Scope Of Study
The area covered in this research work is the effectiveness of new information technology on public relations practices (a case study of federal polytechnic Nekede, Owerri) and it includes external communication and media relations, internal organization employee communication, issue tracking and crisis managements, public relations research and evaluation. Environment /public relations and community relations, information public enlightenment campaign and public relation publications.
1.7 Limitations Of Study
The novelty of he research topic as it concerns new information technology is a litigation in itself, e.g. some respondents regard NIT as industrial training etc. the validity of this research work therefore is subject to the honesty and sincerity of this respondents. Time constraint is another obstacle.
There is not enough time to research thoroughly as one has to combine this work with preparation for final semester examination. Finance is also part of this work limitation as there are no enough fund to move around for data collection.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
New Information Technology:
Can be defined as a technology which supports activities involving the creation storage manipulation and communication of information, together with the related methods management and application. It can also be defined as that which is seemless integration of telecommunication data processing and personal computing with manual business process which supports key business function and which improves effectively, efficiency and quality of working life.
Can be defined as a management team in any organization that effectively identify analyze and understand the changes in their internal and external environment as well as using the new information generated to design and implement appropriate management responses to these changes. Public relations can also be defined as the management function that ensure regular systematic and effective collection, collation packaging and presentation of data that help to ensure the existence of mutual understanding between an organization and it’s publics.
Federal Polytechnic Nekede:
Federal polytechnic Nekede Owerri Nigeria is a polytechnic located in Nekede Owerri west, Imo state Nigeria. It is a center of academic knowledge where so many students including FUTO, IMSU, undergraduates and graduates come for their practical and to acquire knowledge. The school is strict in terms of malpractices they do their things according to laid down rules and regulations. They also operate like some strong universities in Nigeria. So it is a school of higher learning and a place when the superiors and Elites (Lecturers) inculcate and impact knowledge to the upcoming future leaders of tomorrow the (students). It is a higher school of thoughts and academia.
Conceptually has to do with the process of producing intended result while operationally, effectiveness is change in some body or something (result).
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.