The Effectiveness Of Card Reader In Reducing Electoral Malpractice In Nigeria (A Case Study Of 2019 Presidential Election)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

The Effectiveness Of Card Reader In Reducing Electoral Malpractice In Nigeria (A Case Study Of 2019 Presidential Election)


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria with a case study of the 2019 presidential election. A survey research design was adopted, the population comprises all the young politicians in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. The study was confronted with both logistics and geographical constraints. A mean score rating method is used to analyse the data based on the 2.5 acceptance region format to answer the research questions, while to address the research hypothesis, the Spearman’s correlation was used. The main objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the card readers in reducing the electoral malpractice. A case study was conducted in 2019 and the results were analyzed. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the number of cards used in the Nigerian election.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Election fraud has constituted one of the greatest challenges facing the electoral process in Nigeria. Electoral fraud which involves the manipulation of election and rigging of votes is an illegal interference with the election process as a means to favour a particular party or candidate and sometimes both (Alvarez, Michael; Hall, Thad; Hyde, Susan, 2008). The consequence is always a damaging effect on the democratic institution of the country and loss of voters’ confidence. The Independent Electoral Commission in an effort to eliminate electoral fraud introduced the use of card readers. The card reader is used during the election process to verify the voter’s card before allowing the voter to cast the vote. This is to eliminate impersonation and double voting which in previous elections was a rigging strategy. This process replaces the manual process of paper work which can be easily manipulated and error prone. It was believed that this development will facilitate free and fair election in Nigeria, but recent development involving the non-functionality of many of the card readers in some parts of the country during election processes raise questions as to the credibility and ability of these card readers to achieve the purpose for which they were introduced. This poses another challenge if the Nigerian electoral process is ripe for the application of this technology. The study seeks to investigate the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria with a case study of the 2019 presidential election.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Electoral fraud is the illegal interference with the election process as a means to favour a particular party or candidate and sometimes both through, the rigging of votes and manipulation of election. The consequence is always a damaging effect on the democratic institution of the country and loss of voters’ confidence. Consequently, the real reason for the introduction of card readers in the Nigerian electoral process was to eliminate electoral malpractices but, recent development involving the non-functionality of the card readers in many parts of the country poses a great question as to the credibility and capacity of the device to achieve the intended purpose.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria with a case study of the 2019 presidential election.

The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To determine the nature and functions of card readers.
  2. To appraise the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria.
  3. To determine the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in the 2019 presidential elections.

1.3 Research Questions

  1. What is the nature and functions of card readers?
  2. What is the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria?
  3. What is the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in the 2019 presidential elections?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between electoral malpractices and the card reader system in the 2019 presidential elections in Nigeria.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The study shall proffer relevant information on the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria, with a case study of the 2019 presidential election.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the appraisal of the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria with a case study of the 2019 presidential election.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Electoral Fraud Defined

Electoral fraud which involves the manipulation of election and rigging of votes is an illegal interference with the election process as a means to favour a particular party or candidate and sometimes both.

Ballot Stuffing Defined

The submission of multiple ballots during the process of voting.

Misrecording of Votes

The recording of elector’s vote differently from their intentions.

Vote Buying

This involves the buying of votes from the voters in a coming election.

Voter Intimidation Defined

The influence exacted on a voter or group of voters to vote in a particular direction.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria, a case study of 2019 presidential election. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.1 Summary

This study focused on the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria, a case study of 2019 presidential election. The study was set to address three research objectives. The objectives which include: determine the nature and functions of card readers; appraise the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in Nigeria; and determine the effectiveness of card readers in reducing electoral malpractice in the 2019 presidential elections.

In this study, a survey research design was adopted, the population comprises all the young politicians in Uyo, AkwaIbom state, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Relevant literature were reviewed which guided the objectives and methodology of this study.


5.2 Conclusion

As result of the field study and analysis of results, the following findings were made:

  1. That the nature and function of card readers in that it is used in voter accreditation; it is used to ascertain the authenticity of voter information; it is used to reduce the level of rigging in election; it is used to ensure there was no incidence of over voting and it brings about political reforms.
  2. That card readers is not effective in reducing electoral malpractices in Nigeria.
  3. That card readers is not effective in reducing electoral malpractices in the 2019 presidential election in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Extensive and Intensive training of man power personnel who will handle the card reader or its equivalent perfectly well in the future election.
  2. Electronic accreditations of permanent voter cards of the electorates should be included in the Nigeria Constitution to address the issue of legality of card reader or its equivalent in our future elections since Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) is the creation of law of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999.
  3. Timeliness: the proximity of the election must be considered before the test run and the issues identified must be addressed before the general election.
  4. The card reader or its equivalent in our future election must be scrutinized by the expert to ensure that the issue of non-activation of the Subscriber Identification Module (SIM) card does not occur again. Coincidentally, the inbuilt security installation should be decoded by the INEC engineers or experts to avoid malfunctioning of the machine.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: The Effectiveness Of Card Reader In Reducing Electoral Malpractice In Nigeria (A Case Study Of 2019 Presidential Election)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.