Effective Ways Of Controlling Erosion In A Building Site In Selected Sites

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Effective Ways Of Controlling Erosion In A Building Site In Selected Sites


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effective ways of controlling erosion in a building site. In Nigeria soil erosion is a problem and there are several causes for this. These causes are in fact various factors as a result of which soil erosion takes place. Some of the contributing factors are certain agricultural practices of conventional agriculture and environmental problems. There is a universal acceptance that such agricultural practices degrade the soil. The study was used a descriptive co-relational design; the study also was used a cross sectional, comparative and ex-post facto designs.

Descriptive in that data collected was used to describe a phenomenon; co-relational in that it was interested in relating cause, effect and control of erosion on building construction sites in Anambra state. Both soil causes and effect of soil are major drivers of land degradation and pose key problems to livelihoods of the community members in the study area. Sheet, rill and gully erosion are the main types of erosion within the study area and the latter form of erosion, namely gully erosion, is the most alarming problem removing huge quantities of soil, dissecting land and damaging infrastructure.

Deterioration in soil fertility as a result of severe soil erosion is a critical deterrent to crop production and a lack of fodder has been a major factor in the decline in agricultural production. Erosion can be controlled easily on a construction site when the right means, tools, and methods are used at the right time. The most natural and effective way to prevent erosion control is by planting vegetation.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Research aims and objective
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Study of area
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concept of soil erosion
  • 2.2 Causes and impacts of soil erosion
  • 2.3. Impacts of soil erosion
  • 2.4 Erosion by Water
  • 2.5 Erosion by Wind
  • 2.6: Types of soil erosion
  • 2.7 Control Options

Chapter Three:

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Population
  • 3.3 Sample size
  • 3.4 Sampling procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instruments
  • 3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instruments
  • 3.7 Data Gathering Procedures
  • 3.8 Data analysis
  • 3.9 Limitations of the study

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation, Analysis And Interpretation Of Data


Chapter Five:

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusions
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The development of soil erosion began when man settled down and started turning pasture land into farmland. The intensive exploitation of the land disturbed the natural soil vegetative cover and exposed its, surface to the effect of erosive agents and to introduce such forms of agriculture that did not destroy the land the devastation of land by erosion often led to the down fall of civilization e.g in Mesopotamia Syria, China and else where.

According to Robert. M. (1984), Erosion is manifested by the determination of soil surface effected by exogenous forces, especially water. Ice wind and, man as the significant anthropogenic factor. The disturbance of soil surface is accompanied by the removal of the detached soil particles by the force of kinetic energy of some of the erosion agents, namely water and wind and the deposition of this matter with a decrease in this energy. Erosion is caused by surface num off and result complex natural process. Water erosion is caused by precipitation. Areas with a low precipitation usually have a small surface num off because precipitation water infiltrates into the soil is consumed by vegetation erosion which may also be broadly cause by a natural factor organ.

It can also be carried by improper channeling neglect of natural sewage systems and obstruction of naturally sewage by buildings. Form land and other unplanned structure causes a great deal of damage.

Although the nature of soil within the area under consideration is mostly sandy with a very low water storage capabilities. Practical observation orchestrated form visit to those site prone to erosion have shown that their may be possibility of erosion if the nun off water is not properly channel e.g the nature of the soil. In sandy soil they can form a very good soil material but danger exist if the water table is near or surface nun off is not adequately channeled. The sandy easily eroded a way from it position their by causing or may lead to fully erosion.

Furthermore, erosion is seen as one of the most serious defects in contemporary residential buildings, it is observed here that apart form it causing rapid destruction of structure / buildings, it also result to severe damage to the soil and in severe case it adversely affect the health of the occupants.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

A certain condition or factor can make a soil or structure / building to loose their Sharpe effectively or ineffectively attain their maximum structural physical and economic life span. It has been seen that a number of fact observed to be responsible for the in-adequate or in-appropriate functioning channeling of sewage surface nun off water at the due time. These in turn expose the building site to the danger of erosion which accelerate their dilapidation. Among the factors or improper channeling / neglect of natural sewage system and obstruction of natural sewage by building without following the local authorities rules dropping of refuse in the drainage ways. Erosion plays a critical role in dilapidation of building and visible in construction industry as one of the most serious defect in contemporary residential buildings. All soils can suffer erosion but some are more vulnerable than others. Soils with dispersible subsoils, for example, are subject to serious erosion by funneling and gully formation.


1.3 Research Aims And Objective

The major purpose of this study is to determine. The effective way of controlling erosion in a construction site prone to erosion problem.

  1. Identity the various causes of erosion in building sites.
  2. Examine the appropriate materials and (new and old) used in controlling the erosion.
  3. Determine the most appropriate materials and techniques required for the controlling it.
  4. To recommend measure if implemented will lead to effective control of erosion in a construction

1.4 Research Questions

The study sought to answer the following research questions

  1. What are nature and various causes of erosion in building sites
  2. What are the process to be applied in erosion control.
  3. What are the various types of materials to be used in controlling erosion
  4. If implemented will lead to effective control of erosion in an erosion prone site

1.5 Significant Of The Study

The significance of this study shall include the follow:

  1. Contractors and engineers shall know how to control erosion in an erosion prone site.
  2. The engineers and the general public will because more aware on the importance of erosion control in a site.
  3. Lecturers, students consultants and other stakeholders in the construction industry will be theoretically & technically equipped on how to control erosion in an erosion prone construction site.

1.6 Study Of Area

This study was delimited to the problem of erosion in a site prone to erosion. It focused on the type and magnitude of erosion at site in Anambra state and also looked at the specific remedial techniques to that building site will function effectively and efficiently. Attempt should be made to look into laboratory experimentation of the material used for effective control of erosion in building site prone to erosion. Ekwulobia erosion is gully erosion-gully erosion is of concern due to periodically intense rainfall and a large average of erodible soils. Effective design of gully control system must consider the gully network as a whole and be based on geomorphologic indicators such as type of network, order and stage of development.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

According to Grolie (1990). Erosion is the wearing away of the earth surface by the action of water.

According to Milos Holy (1987). Building is permanent or temporary structure enclosed within exterior walls and a roof and including all attached apparatus. Equipment and fixtures that cannot be removed without cutting into ceiling floors or walls. In the year 1960 Bernard Huss define soil as the top layer of the earths surface in which plants an grow consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with decayed organic matter and having the capability of retaining water.


Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1. Conclusions

Erosion is the loss of soil. As soil erodes, it loses nutrients, clogs rivers with dirt, and eventually turns the area into a desert. Although erosion happens naturally, human activities can make it much worse. Erosion can turn once healthy, vibrant land into arid, lifeless terrain and further cause landslides and mudslides.

Both soil causes and effect of soil are major drivers of land degradation and pose key problems to livelihoods of the community members in the study area. Sheet, rill and gully erosion are the main types of erosion within the study area and the latter form of erosion, namely gully erosion, is the most alarming problem removing huge quantities of soil, dissecting land and damaging infrastructure.

Deterioration in soil fertility as a result of severe soil erosion is a critical deterrent to crop production and a lack of fodder has been a major factor in the decline in agricultural production. As charcoal is the major source of energy for cooking in the study area, deforestation has seriously depleted forest resources. This has compelled community members to travel long distances and spending significant amount of time for collection of wood.

Erosion can be controlled easily on a construction site when the right means, tools, and methods are used at the right time. The most natural and effective way to prevent erosion control is by planting vegetation.


5.2 Recommendation

Due to the heavy problem of soil erosion into the Environment, as we discuss chapter four we suggest to control factors the can cause soil erosion such as water wind and human activates

  1. Training for local people in Anambra to get ability to prevent problems of soil erosion which have an advice effect on their farmers and also their animal production
  2. The local municipality must interfere This problem specially place like dry river in Anambra state
  3. Awareness should be created at all levels on the negative effects of soil erosion on the environment, The rate of soil erosion should be quantified
  4. Alternative energy sources should be considered and information disseminated at grass roots level to protect the remaining forests.

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