Effective Waste Management Strategies And It’s Implications On Public Health Of Residents

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Effective Waste Management Strategies And It’s Implications On Public Health Of Residents


Abstract


The study examines the effective waste management strategies and it’s implications on public health of residents. It examines how improper waste disposal has impacted on human health especially in the communities near the dumpsite. The study showed that dumping of solid waste is improperly done because of supervision which has resulted in dumping of solid waste off the landfill.

This showed that improper dumping of solid waste has contributed highly on the disease outbreak not just in Yaba LGA at Large. A sample of respondents of the project was selected for semi-structured interviews to explore their purpose and activities. A total of 60 individuals responded to the survey, representing 66.7% of the three groups as the three groups which were sampled has 90 members. This groups include Health care workers, Scavengers, community residents and community health workers. Despite a small sample, the researcher collected data successfully.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Waste management strategies are a core function o f any urban authority. All over the world this responsibility is entrusted to municipal councils/corporations; No urban authority has a choice of whether or not to manage it’s waste, the only choice is that of the strategy to employ. Waste management has emerged as a crucial concern of environmental health The World Health Organisation(WHO, 1995) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment that can cause disease or death. According to United Nations International Children Emergency Fund – (UNICEF, 2008) majority of the population in third world countries live on one dollar a day. In the struggle to survive and meet their basic needs they engage in destructive practices that impact negatively to the environment.

Most third world countries did not have environmental policies until recently for example in Nigeria the Environmental Management Act was enacted in 1999years after independence. To date the authority lacks enough staff and funding to handle environmental health concerns. This has resulted to inability to police and prevent environmental violations, being more reactive than proactive, waste of economic resources in the process o f taking corrective actions, lack of waste management in urban areas, poor foresight by planners, inability to adopt appropriate practices to manage waste disposal, poor protection of wetland and water catchment areas from both residential and industrial wastes, and laxity in endorsing existing laws pertaining to environmental protection (GOK, 2005). As Mostafa K. Tolba, former Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme – UNEP said “the problems that overwhelm us Hxicty are precisely those we failed to solve decades ago”, (World Resources Institute 2003) is therefore applicable to many third world countries Nigeria included.

The world commission on environment and development chaired by Norwegian Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland (and consequently called the Brundtland commission 1987 is now a common feature of any development effort. In reference to Brundtland report 1987 therefore waste management strategies should encompasssustainable development to be effective with sustainable development being defined as ‘development that meets the needs o f the present without compromising the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs”. In a nutshell it is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environments so that these needs can be met not only in the present but also for future generations.

Garbage and other solid waste pose a threat in the city of Lagos especially in areas such as rural areas(mainland). There is no proper management of dumping garbage and solid waste at dumping site which has contributed to a high number of water borne and respiratory tract diseases such as typhoid, cholera and acute respiratory tract infections, respectively. For instance, in 2018, 98 deaths from cholera were recorded (WHO/MoH 2018). For Lusaka, the city generates about one million tonnes of waste annually, according to the city’s Waste Management Unit (WMU). But only half of this is taken to the designated dump site.

Waste management strategies include methods o f waste handling methods, waste disposal, awareness on waste management, government policy on waste management and the more recently privatization of wastage management Considering the current situation that environment forms the back bone o f the productive sector and is key to poverty reduction and socio-economic development; and that local authorities, whose main responsibility is management of waste, and their most pressing problems being poor service delivery, loss o f public goodwill, financial crisis, limited flexibility due to legal and institutional framework and lack o f leakages with communities and community participation (Mbogua and Chana, 1999) the lack of proper enforcement the Environmental Act (GOK, 2004) there is urgent need for assessment of the effectiveness of waste management strategies on environmental health. Environmental health is therefore dependant on well designed and implemented waste management strategies.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

Waste management is a major problem world-over. The social economic development has caused an increased pressure to the environment. There is need for reduction in environmentally damaging activities – waste management being one of them (Rosenbaum, 2002).

The production of consumables all over the world and their disposal has negatively impacted upon the environment. The more the production the more the waste, the more there is to dispose Waste management is therefore a crucial component in the global environment concern, (Kevin & Lewis, 1994).

The Stockholm conference of 1972 addressed such concerns. The developing mega cities have enormous waste management problems Mexico one of the largest cities in the developing world generates some 10,000 tons of garbage each day, manilla in the Philippines generates excess of 10,000 tons of waste daily, (World Bank, 2006). Nigeria city generates over 1,000 tons of refuse daily (GOK, 2005).

In Africa, for many people the way to dispose waste is simply to drop it in some place, open unregulated dumps are the predominant methods of waste disposal in Nigeria, and many African countries There are challenges associated with open dumping, animal scavengers, becomes habitat for rats, flies, mosquitoes, scavenging birds, produces leachates, may be a security risk o f human scavengers and health risk due to rabid dogs and mosquitoes (Lohani and Baldisimo 1990). In Nigeria waste management offers general challenges from clogged drainage, and sewers, water borne diseases like typhoid, cholera and diarrhoea among others increased upper respiratory diseases from open burning of garbage to malaria (GOK, 2006). The collection and disposal waste in Nigeria is one of the major services entrusted to the local authorities. The councils establish a refuse collection services and charges for this service are levied However, in most towns of Nigeria unsightly piles of refuse can be seen (GOK, 2005). This study will analyse the effective waste management strategies and it’s implications on public health of residents so as to find better and environmental friendly ways of waste management at the dumpsite.


1.3 Objectives of the study

The study was guided by the following objectives:

  1. To establish the influence of waste handling methods on environmental health.
  2. To establish the influence of waste disposal methods on environmental health.
  3. To establish the influence of waste management awareness on Environmental health.
  4. To assess the influence of government waste management policy on environmental health
  5. To assess influence o f privatization of waste management on environmental health

1.4 Research questions

The study sought to answer the following research questions

  1. How do waste handling methods influence environmental health?
  2. How do waste disposal methods influence environmental health?
  3. How does waste management awareness affect environmental health?
  4. To what extent does government policy on waste management affect environmental health?
  5. To what extent does privatization of waste management affect environmental health?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The study formulated and tested the following hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no relationship between effective waste management strategies and public health of residents
  • Hi: There is a relationship between effective waste management strategies and public health of residents

1.6 Significance of the Study

The possible results of this study on the effective waste management strategies and it’s implications on public health of residents at Yaba Local government Araea will be used by Ministry of health and other stakeholders to formulate policies and guidelines for the local community, neighbouring places and other relevant authorities on environmental health to prevent outbreaks of diseases and its management in Lagos city. It will also help stakeholders in planning and formulating future policies with regards to prevention disease and control of disease outbreak in the city of Lagos.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will analyze the effective waste management strategies and it’s implications on public health of residents in Yaba, LGA, Lagos State. The study is limited to some selected Areas in Yaba, LGA, Lagos State. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among residents in the study area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

MoH

Ministry of Health

Solid Wastes:

Are all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted.

Refuse:

It is a general name given to all wastes except liquid waste. It includes all putrescible and non-putrescible wastes.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is defined as any infectious disease of the upper or lower respiratory tract. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include the common cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute rhinitis, acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis media.

Waste Management:

Refers to the “collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials”

Case Fatality Rate (CFR):

Sometimes called case fatality risk is the proportion of deaths from a certain disease compared to the total number of people diagnosed with the disease for a certain period of time.

Typhoid Fever:

Is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteria.

Waste Management Unit:

The Waste Management Unit (WMU) is the regulatory Unit of Waste Management in the city is mandated to plan, organize, execute (directly or indirectly) and supervise waste management services in other selected areas in the City and the management of disposal site

Cholera:

Is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhoea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholera.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses the conclusions and recommendations of the study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective waste management strategies and it’s implications on public health of residents and come up with proposed solutions to improve waste management situation. In order to achieve this objective, various literature was reviewed to get the insights of the diverse thoughts on the subject as well as to guide the explanations of the findings of the results. The chapter also dwells on the conclusion drawn from the research findings and analysis and thereafter make recommendations based on the findings.


5.2 Conclusion

The research conducted detected numerous factors and constraints that negatively impact on human health due to improper dumping of solid waste at Yaba Area. Provision of waste containers in the markets, waste collection vehicles and other logistics could prevent indiscriminate waste dumping, burning and other forms of waste disposal to curb the menace of environmental hazards solid waste generates. Introduction of good integrated waste management system could promote more recycling of waste materials into compost, bio energy and other forms of raw materials that could be used by industries as well as reducing environmental pollution. These can be achieved if LCC focuses attention more on securing the dumpsite by increasing security management, incorporating prudent policies as well as allocating enough funds to conduct community sensitisation and conducts disease awareness campaigns on a regular basis in corroboration with Public health office for all operations to work efficiently to achieve formidable result. Introduction of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the waste management sector could also help to address some technical, economic and financial challenges in solid waste management..


5.3 Recommendations

The study however has finalised by providing policy recommendations on how to improve welfare of city’s poor under the current development framework and the discussion of the recommendations is shaped by different social protection conceptual frameworks.

  1. Ministry health should start early community sensitization for them to catch up with other areas, which comes unpassable during rainy season.
  2. Members of the public in the Waste Management Districts should be educated on the policy guidelines regulating the operations of private companies collecting garbage
  3. Public health team to distribute chlorine on time in the community for water treatment in order to overcome cholera.
  4. Sensitization of cholera, typhoid fever and malaria should be an on-going thing not when rainy season is near.
  5. On preventive measures, Government should put hand pump boreholes in areas where they use shallow wells waters for cooking and drinking.
  6. The government must establish community health education centres where members of the community can access information regarding proper solid waste disposal and diseases outbreak.
  7. Families must be assisted in determining what is going on in their household which can be led to disease outbreak and tremendous restructuring, rethinking, shift the culture in the community and the culture we have at approaching the problem.
  8. Train community-based volunteers who will be used for continuous sensitisation on the impact of improper solid waste disposal on human health.
  9. In order to attract successful private investment in solid waste management, LCC need to establish a strategic framework tailored to local conditions

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