Effective Use Of A Tropical Hop Named Bitter Leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) Extract As A Means Of Extending The Shelf – Life Of Locally Brewed Millet Beer

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Effective Use Of A Tropical Hop Named Bitter Leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) Extract As A Means Of Extending The Shelf – Life Of Locally Brewed Millet Beer


This local beer is brewed from a cereal grain called millet, and it is brewed with bitter leave extract acting as hop substitute to see if it can increase the shelf – life of this beer. The production process include malting, mashing, fermentation, and maturation. The microorganisms associated with fermentation include Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Saccharomyces Charelienia. These yeast hasten fermentation by converting the sugar in the beer to alcohol. Kunu is an indigenous alcoholic beverages that is traditionally brewed with out hops, and because of this it has a shot shelf life as compared with that brewed with the tropical hops. There is a significant [P≥ 0.05] difference in chemical properties of millet with hops and without hops. Millet with hops is the best with alcoholic content of 0.325 ± 0.004, total acidity of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic acid),fixed acidity of 0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and pH of 4.03± 0.02.But without hops we have an alcoholic content of 0.316± 0.005, total acidity(lactic acid) of 0.427± 0.002, fixed acidity of 0.034± 0.005,specific gravity of 1.049± 0.007, and pH of 3.32±0.02.From the result the beer without hops is the lowest in acceptance of chemical properties so it is advisable that the local millet beer be brewed with the tropical hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a Cerael grains known as barley and Millet. A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugers in the grains to make Beers, converting them to alcohol and carbondioxide gas. This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about 2-6%.Over an aggregate of 70 types of beer are available in the modern worlds todays. Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics and differences in its brewing process. Four basic ingredients are used in brewing, which includes; grains, hops, bitterleaves as a hop’s substitute] Yeast and water, Grains like Millet contain the natural sugers required for fermentation. It also provides beer with flavour, colour, body and texture. Hops are small, green, cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant, a vine related to the nettle plant over 50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the world, mostly in Europe, Australia and North America. But the hops we want to used is bitter leave acting as hop’s substitute. It is mostly grown here in Africa.

Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour and contribute natural substances that prevent bacteria from spoiling beer. Two species of Yeast ;Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum and baker’s yeast. Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct type of beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002,In the United States,1800brewers, produced almost 175 millions barrels of beer.

Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally owned breweries deliver social values better than global companies. Since early times beer which is the products of brewing processes has played an important role in our society, It bring people together in local pubs and breweries generating Camaraderie within Communities. As technology has progress brewing techniques have been developed and refined. As a result, we are currently consuming the finest beers ever produced. This is due to our increased knowledge in the fields of Biotechnology, Microbiology and Chemistry.

1.1 Aim of Study / Project

The aim of study is primarily to have a capture of the effect use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf(Vernonia Amygdalina) extract as a means of extending the shelf–life of a locally millet beer. In the course of achieving this goal, the ingredients used in brewing industries are taken into consideration together with various analysis carried on beer samples. Finally, beer should be of an adequate composition and texture in order to satisfy consumers need and sensitivity on the disadvantages of beer abuse to the health and body.

Chapter Five

Disadvantages associated With Over Consumption of Brewed Product.

  1. Over consumption of brewed product can be very fatal to health, due to the present of tannin in red wine although in small quantity but if consumed in large quantity might lead to heart diseases which will affect the rate of respiration of that individual.
  2. Also over consumption of this brewed product will affect the brain since the main food for the brain is Glucose and this glucose has ben fermented, making the consumption of too much of this brewed product very deadly to the brain cell for it even to the damage of brain cell by reducing the rate of respiration.
  3. Also over consumption of this brewed product can lead to sterility due to the presence of tannin in red wine.
  4. Over consumptin of brewed products liver damage for it over work the liver due the ethanol content in the beer.etanol related high levels of NADH + H and acetyl-CoA in the liver lead to increase synthesis of neutral fats and cholesterol. However, since the export of these in the form of VLDLS is reduced due to alcohol, storage of lipids occurs(fatty liver),which is not healthy at all. This increase in fat content of the liver is initially reversible. However, in chronic alcoholism the hepatocytes are increasingly replaced by connective tissue. When liver finally reaches an irreversible stage, characterized by progressive lose of liver functions.
  5. Over consumption of alcoholic product has a very drastic effect in human life for it lead to paralysis, heart failure, sterility, brain failure and even make the individuals involved to caused nuisance to the society.
  6. Since locally made millet beer with bitterleaf extract acting as hops substitute have not been well mordify so as to eliminate or have more effect on fungi and other microorganisms so as to increase the shelf –life of the beer, it is advisable that abstinence is the best option until every thing is corrected, If at all any beer should be consumed the one without hops is preferable but should be consumed immediately after production because it has no phytochemicals to preserve it for a period of time and so if left for a long period of time it will serve as a medium for the growth of microorganism, which when consumed it will cause problem to the person’s health.

5.0.1 Advantages of Brewed Product.

  1. Alcoholic drink (brewed product) when consumed in a very little quantity help to dialate the vein to ease the flow of blood round the body.
  2. Also a little consumption of brewed product help to produce fatty cell under the skin hence creating an insulator to the body.
  3. Also locally made millet beer is very healthy to consumed immediately after production (the one without hops).

5.1 Conclusion.

In conclusion, it may be said that Abstinence is the best option to achieve a healthy liver, heart, lungs, brain infact a healthy being. And also that the locally produced beer is more preferable to health when consumped immediately after production for it does not contain tannin compound which is present in morden beer(red wine),high alcoholic level which is also present in morden beer. Also locally made millet beer with hops prove to have a longer shelf life than that without hops, this explain that the bitter leaf extract which act in the place of hops as hop substitute can prevent the growth of microoganism which may deteriorate the beer, although it has just little effect on the fungus which may caused some problems when consumed. In ordered to achieve our aim the bitter leaf extract should be well mordify in such a way that it will increase the shelf-life of this locally prepared millet beer for than more eight days without experiencing any growth of spoilage bacteria or microorganism so as to serve the less priviledge as their own alcoholic beer.

5.2 Recommendation

From the results of my research program, I recommend the following:

  1. That the hops substitute (bitter leaf extract) be more mordify in such a way that so as to increase the shelf – life of the locally made millet beer, so that it may act as the morden hops and even better than the morden hops, so that the less priviledge will have their own beer.
  2. That the local millet beer be well mordified as to serve to the less priviledge as their own alcoholic drink.
  3. That more microorganism causing the deterioration of the local made millet beer be identified and solution on how to prevent such growth.
  4. That the method of preparation of this local millet beer be mordified so as to prevent the introduction of microorganism which renders the drink unsafe for human consumption.
  5. That the organic acids contained in the beer be found and that bitter leaf extract be well more mordified in such a way it is going to have effect on fungi organisms.
  6. I also recommend that abstinence from all these brewed product especially the modrn ones is the best option for a good health and also these brewed product should be kept out of reach to children and should not be recommended for children under – aged.

5.3 Limitations of Study.

  1. Due to the high amount of solids in this locally made beer especially that without hops, finding the total acidity was cumbersome and time taken.
  2. Since we are researching on how to increase the shelf – life of this locally made millet beer by using bitterleaf as hops substitute, inding the effect of this hops on the beer was strainous and tasking.

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