Effective Solid Waste Management As A Booster To Nigeria Economy

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Effective Solid Waste Management As A Booster To Nigeria Economy


Abstract


Waste management and control strategies as practiced in Nigeria urban centers have been a source of great concern due to their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. The research provides a conceptual and theoretical study on the effect of waste management practice and the prospect of boosting Nigerian economy. It analyzes the concept of waste and waste management. It projects the challenges and proffers strategies for effective waste management in Nigeria and the tremendous benefit that accrue to it.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

One common thread hotly debated to have greatly influenced societal welfare and health in recent time is the widely shared and strongly held values that underlie and define solid waste management. Hence, the evaluation of the effect of solid waste management on economic conditions and health of average citizenry has become imperative and assumed heightened significance in every forum locally and on the international scene. But what exactly is solid waste and solid waste management and why should it matter for financial and economic decisions? Momodu, Dimuna and Dimuna (2011) define solid wastes to comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. They also include byproducts of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid wastes can be classified in a number of ways; on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: municipal solid wastes, industrial solid waste, commercial solid wastes, institutional solid waste and agricultural solid wastes (IJSDGE, 2013). According to the Glossary of Environment Statistics (1997), solid waste management on the other hand refers to the supervised handling of solid waste material from generation at the source through the recovery processes to disposal. Similarly, Abdulahi, Ajibike, Man-Ugwueje and Ndububa (2014) defined solid waste management as the generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse and residual disposition of solid wastes. Apparently, all human activities give rise to residual materials which may not be of immediate use and thereby constitute waste which is ultimately emitted to the environment. In recent time, the problem of solid waste management has become a debilitating factor towards sustainable development in Nigeria. There is a growing solid waste disposal problem which is gradually approaching crises level due to urbanization and population growth. This trend has remained unchecked for so many years that now; the situation appears intractable. In most major cities in Nigeria like Port Harcourt, Onitsha, Lagos, and Kano, the domestic waste disposal problem is typified by overflowing dustbins and mountains of open refuse dumps at virtually every street corner. Increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have caused the temperature of the earth to rise by 0.6 cover the last 100 years. The ten (10) warmest years of the 20th century all occurred in the last 15 years of the century and 1998 was the warmest year on record (www.defra.gov.uk). Thermal expansion and glacier melting are causing sea level to rise, rises in sea level can increase the salinity of freshwater throughout the world and cause coastal lands to be washed under ocean exposing populations to increased risk of flooding, patterns of precipitation are changing with greater like hood of extreme events and more areas subject to water stress warmer water and increased humidity may encourage tropical cyclone and changing wave patterns could produce more tidal waves and strong beach erosion on the coast. With consequences for agricultural production, these changes to the environment will most likely. These changes to the environment will most likely cause negative impacts on society such as flooding, lower health and decreasing in socioeconomic development.Developing countries like Nigeria are particularly at risk because of her bad waste management system and unhealthy disposal practices. The problem of solid waste disposal is one of the most serious environmental problems facing many cities in Nigeria. Waste management plays an integral role in human activities. Various ways of managing solid waste includes disposal by either burying or burning, reduce or reusing, recycling and energy generation. Solid waste management differs in developing countries like Nigeria and in industrialized countries of the world like Germany. Several factors are responsible for the differences, a good example of these are the types of waste generated in developing countries.

Contreau (1982) submitted that, in developing countries, there is much high proportion of organic and considerably less plastic waste such that the large amount of organic material makes the waste denser with greater moisture and smaller particles. Another factor identified is that the technology in use in industrialized countries are inappropriate in developing countries because of the much heavier, wetter and corrosive nature of generated waste in developing countries. Lastly, developing countries, most cities are unplanned and characterized by haphazard construction of sprawling slums with narrow roads that are inaccessible to collection vehicles, (Daskalopoulos 1998). Omotoso and Jegede (2009) observed that in recent in years, solid waste generation in metropolitan cities has increased prodigiously. They added that major high-ways have suddenly become the dunghill for many citizens. The state seems to have acquired the unenviable status of being one of the dirtiest cities in world. It is a development that has malevolently aided the environmental problems of the mega-city. Adegoke (1990) defined waste as substance and materials, which are disposed of, or required to be disposed of according to the provision of national laws. In the same vein, Oxford Dictionary (1980) defined wastes as that which is not or cannot be used, no longer of use. Consequently, of these waste materials were not well managed, they could result to serious health hazards. In Nigeria, solid waste management is constitutionally a local government functionImproper management of solid waste disposal causes all types of pollution: air, soil, and water. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes contaminates surface and ground water supplies. In urban areas, mismanagement of solid wastes clog drainages creating stagnant water for insect breeding and floods during rainy seasons. Besides, greenhouse gases are generated from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills, and untreated leachate pollutes surrounding soil and water bodies.

Insects and rodents are attracted to the waste and can spread diseases such as cholera among others. Using water polluted by solid waste for bathing, plant irrigation and drinking can expose individuals to diseases. Exhaust fumes from waste collection vehicles, dust stemming from disposal practices and the open burning of waste also contribute to overall health problems. Meanwhile, a priori deduction suggests that proper management of solid waste could enhance sustainable national progress and economic development. Consistently, recent academic debates in the field of environmental management have attempted to empirically demonstrate the link between solid waste management and economic development. Such studies have argued that sustainable economic development of a nation could depend on the effectiveness of management of solid waste. The studies hypothesized that solid waste management could generate employment and contribute to internally generated revenue (IGR). Implicitly, youth unemployment can be curbed to minimum by employing and equipping youths to effectively manage disposed wastes while government could generate more revenue internally via rents from waste owners. But the extent to which this submission is true has not received adequate empirical justification in most developing nations considering the rate at which solid wastes are still managed. In Nigeria, there are ongoing debates on the extent to which solid waste disposal management can affect national progress.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem confronting this research is to appraise the effect of solid waste management as a booster to Nigerian economy. The increase in population, industrial, commercial, technological and economic activities has resulted in the growth of volume of waste and its effect in our environment, therefore the formulation and implementation of effective strategy is imperative for the management of waste disposal in Nigeria. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of solid waste management as a booster to Nigerian economy.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the effect of solid waste management as a booster to Nigerian economy;

  1. To investigate the effect of waste management practice on the environment.
  2. To determine the effect of solid waste as a source of internal revenue generation
  3. To appraise the strategy for effective waste management practice and revenue generation
  4. To determine the management practice of NWMA for effective waste management

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there any positive effect of waste management on the environment?
  2. How effective is the strategy for solid waste in revenue generation and environmental protection?
  3. What constitute the strategy for effective waste management practice?
  4. What constitute the management practice of NWMA for effective waste management practice?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study shall provide a structural study on solid waste. It shall investigate the effect of solid waste on the environment. The study shall analyze strategies for effective waste management practice. It shall provide a reference source of information for environmental experts.


1.6 Statement of Hypothesis

  1. H0: The volume of solid waste in the environment is low
    H1: The volume of solid waste in the environment is high
  2. H0: The effect of solid waste on the environment is low
    H2: The effect of solid waste on the environment is high
  3. H0: The impact of NWMA waste management practice on solid waste management is low
    H3: The impact of NWMA waste management practice on solid waste management is high

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study is focused on the effect of waste management as a booster to Nigerian economy, with a emphasis on NWMA

Time Constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials:

Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Solid Waste

The American Public Liquid Association in 1975 defined solid waste as unwanted and useless material with insufficient liquid content to be free flowing, because of its sticky nature, solid waste has the ability to accumulating and physically insulting and degrading the environment if not well managed.

Management

Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees or volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to the people who manage an organization.

Waste

Waste and wastes are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no use.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.

  1. Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study.
  2. Chapter two deals with review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis.
  4. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while
  5. Chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was the effect of solid waste management as a booster to Nigerian economy.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges solid waste management practice in the country.


5.2 Summary

In solid waste management there is no ‘away’. When ‘throwing away’ waste, system complexities and the integrated nature of materials and pollution are quickly apparent. For example, waste incineration is expensive and poses challenges of air pollution and ash disposal. Incineration requires waste placed outside for collection to be containerized to stay dry, and much of the waste stream is not combustible. Landfills require land availability, and siting is often opposed by potential neighboring residents. Solving one problem often introduces a new one, and if not well executed, the new problem is often of greater cost and complexity.


5.3 Conclusion

Solid waste management plays an integral role in human activity. The overall view of solid waste management is to collect, treat and dispose solid waste by urban dwellers in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner. Until recently, Nigerians have not been particularly concerned about proper waste management, open dumping and open burning in unapproved locations has been the norms. The constraints to effective solid waste management are not limited to lack of policy or laws, but poor infrastructure, education, social awareness of problems and solutions, and lack of institution promoting sustainable environmental actions.


5.4 Recommendation

Haven successfully completed the study, the following recommendations were made: Strategic environmental planning of waste management practices in the study area. There is need to ensure strict adherence to guidance and cost analysis of solid waste options in the area. Community participation in collection, selection of sites and designof facilities is inherently essential for sustainability. There is need to strengthen the work force, by recruiting more personnel in the Waste Management Authority. Government should provide adequate funds for waste management personnel for the purchase of more evacuating vehicles and waste disposal containers. There is need for environmental and public health education on the danger of indiscriminate waste disposal in the study area.


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