Effective Motivational Programmes And Productivity In Government Parastatals (A Case Study Of Imo State Health Management Board)
The study analyzed the effect of motivational programs and productivity in selected Government parastatals in Nigeria. A total of 200 civil servants were selected across the parastatal using simple random sampling technique from which data and information were elicited from the questionnaire. Analytically, the study employed descriptive statistics, chi-square and the simple percentage. The analysis of factors affecting productivity of employees in Government parastatals in the study area indicated that Sex of the respondents, Age of respondents, monthly income, days of work in a month, type of non-monetary reward received and responses of respondents with respect to their judgment on effect of motivational programs, reward on their productivity all revealed a positive significant contribution to the productivity of the sampled Government parastatal in the study area respectively.
There is clearly and widely accepted belief that the economy of this counting is weak. This has in effect caused such as untold economic hardship to the populace, such that has never been experienced in the history of Nigeria since its independence. It is an acknowledged view that the economy of the entire world is undergoing recessional period. This is much noticeable and hard- feet in the third world countries of which Nigeria is one.
Nigeria is much up of thirty- six (36) state and Abuja as the federal Capital territory (FTC) and she practices mixed economy ideology system. This is an inheritance from her colonial masters. This resulted to her economic structure in relation to ownership of factors of production being divided into sectors. Earlier before the outset of the third commendable and the standard of living was fairly high, as the purchasing power of our currency was also high. The factors that led into the buoyancy were the revenue that was constantly earned from the sales of crude oil.
The second factor was that the nation’s agricultural productivity was also higher than what is obtainable now. Some of the resultant effect of high flow of revenue from crude oil was that people became reluctant to work and displayed a great deal of non- chalet attitude towards the continuation of their agriculture and small sale industrial operations. This subsequently led to a decrease in productivity of goods and services. It further resulted in an increased dependence on imported oil. Thus, there existed a great disparity between our foreign exchange earnings and our expenditure of which the later was greater.
The emergence of the oil, glut, made it clear that Nigerian’s economy is hanging on a balance. This situation led to the introduction of the structural Adjustment programmes other wise known as ‘SAP’ by the Babangide administration. This was designed to help bring the rumblings economy its shape. The main strategy here is to reduce the rush for foreign goods, increase production locally and to restructure the entire economy to operate at a greater degree of indecency from foreign influence. The role of effective management of financial, material and human resources cannot therefore be underestimated as one of the means of achieving these economic goals. The government is doing her best through viable policy plans and strategies to influxes substantial materials and financial resources of the two arms in production and ultimate economic stability.
On the note, its very important to recognize that for economic growth to be achieved, full and effective consideration must be given to the well being of the individual workers that required to carryout their respective activities in the economic system. When workers are being taken care of, there is the tendency for increased productivity. If productivity increases, there will be the urge for generating more revenue (that is profit) from taxes to the government. Undertaking higher motivational programmes on the individual workers can only do this as it effects human resources management among other factors of production.
It is the objectives of the study to examine the extent if positive effect that could be achieved through effective motivational programmes on productivity unique semi- independent government sector called prostates.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is an ‘Igbo’ adage which says that ‘a collectively owned goat starves to death’. But why? This adage goes to explain the differences that have been existing in efficiency, effectiveness and productivity between the private owned and government establishments.
The main functional area of these parastatals is centered on provision of services of various types such as healthcare, information dissemination, electricity supply and so on. Competition between these private organizations that offer the same services in the parastatals and the parastatals themselves therefore exists.
People seems to patrnize private sectors than the public sectors, Reasons, being that the private sectors that offer similar services are more efficient and also offer them with keen interest. Typical examples are a situation where people patronize private owned hospitals. The question now is ‘why do people drift away from patronizing public set up.’?
A caused interview confirmed some serious complaints by the members of the public over the uncaring and non-chalet attitudes of these government hospital workers.
Conversely, a very close fact finding investigation within the workers confirmed these allegation further questioning as to why workers behave that way, gave the investigator these impressions and they include the following;
- High degree of frustration and stigma in the work place.
- Wrong timing in administration of salaries, wages and fringe benefits and other various ills that have befallen the workers which involve bribery, corruption, inefficiency and ultimately downward plunging of productivity which would continue unless something is done to remedy these problems.
1.3 Research Questions
- Is motivation really a means of achieving the desired result in an organization?
- Dose it mean that effectiveness of production depends on the motivated factors of employees?
- Has efficiency be improved since some motivated system was introduced?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- H0: motivation is not a means of achieving the desired result in an organization
H1: motivation is a means of achieving the desired result in an organization
- H0: effectiveness of production does not depends on the motivated factors of employees
H2: effectiveness of production does depends on the motivated factors of employees
1.5 Purpose / Significance of the Study
The basic motive of this study is to find out the role which effective motivational programmes have played in the continues decrease in productivity in government parastatals, despite that the government has from time to time invested a substantial amount of financial, material and human resources in them.
Furthermore, the purpose of this study is also to look into the internal components of these human resources with special reference to the motivational efforts made by the management for the workers which will ultimately determine their behavior and attitude to work. The efficient and effective utilization of mind and motivation.
Lab our is the most sensitive factor of production. It is human and it needs substantial economic, social and spiritual support to survive. Therefore, it is important to observe the efficient success and survival of other factors of production and the organization as a whole.
The ultimate achievement of goals and objectives of an organization is to maximize profit with the available lab our given them the required thins to motivate them.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The main reason why this research is carried out in wider perspectives is the researcher’s concern over the wider spread outcry by the entire populace of this country over the present state of the economy. In the light of this, both individuals and governments towards reviving the determine are making various efforts and sacrifices are being made by both individuals and governments towards reviving the deteriorating economy.
Psychologically, people’s attitude towards work desire for personal betterment and achievement, and confidence in future, affects a nation’s economic growth by learning what kind of attitude and motivations people have on the kind of effect upon economic behavior and status.
Therefore, high productivity is a vital component of a growing economy and all avenues must be exploited towards achieving this objective.
The need for the study therefore, becomes stronger and consequently concentrates on the desire to find out how and to what extent effective motivational programmes could help in making workers to increase their productivity.
1.7 Assumption of the Study
Low productivity could be traced to be caused by many economic variables such as lackadaisical attitude of the workers, which would be due to lack of motivation.
Hence the researcher assumes the following;
- That through adequate budgetary, allocations and subsidies these parastatals are provided with adequate financial resources.
- That the government makes every effort to provide all the material resources required to maintain the efficient and effective functioning of these parastatals.
- That the lab our –factor component of the parastatals are knowledgeable, skilled and experienced enough and that their job allocations are unique with their personal potentials.
- That the public will be willing to patronize these parastatals if they were assured of adequate and efficient services commensurate with the value of their income expended for such services.
1.8 Limitations of Scope of the Study
This study is carried out with the geographical boundaries of Imo State of Nigeria. The focus of study in the wider economic perspective is the public arm of the economy, owned and controlled by the government, which operate under the name ‘parastatals.’ The parastatals, which is selected as a case study of this research is in Imo State Management Board.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This is an individual’s inner state that causes the person to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goals.
Is the process of reaching the organizational goal by working with and through people and other organizational resources.
3) Motivation Strength:
This is an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior.
4) Motivation Factors:
These are the set of items that influence the degree of job satisfaction.
5) Organizational Effectiveness:
This refers to the degree to which the organization accomplishes its objectives.
This is the relating of input to output to defect whether the organization is moving forward or not.
This is the right an ordinary shareholder has to the share in the profit of the organization.
This is part of the company’s activities concerned with discovering new products for the company and for making technical improvements in existing ones.
9) Hierarchy Of Needs:
By maslow’s ‘state of Human Needs’ he described hierarchy of needs as the arrangement of human needs in an order in which individuals generally strive to satisfy themselves. And these needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance as follow;
Physiological needs security, Security needs social, social needs Esteem, and Esteem needs Self- actualization.
This is the act of integrating and co-coordinating the efforts of different individual and gives purpose to there efforts in terms of objectives to be accomplished.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of motivational programs and productivity in government parastatals.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of motivation and productivity in government parastatals.
The study is of the view that higher productivity and efficiency of employees in government parastatals is possible with the effective exploitation of motivational programs and through non-monetary reward strategy. In our country Nigeria, where human resources are found to be plenty, non-monetary rewards can be used as a vitalinstrument in employee performance and productivity as motivated employees are more productive, more efficient and more willing to work towards organizational goals than the employees who are experiencing low levels of motivation. The study concludes that government should motivate their staff more by involving them in self-developmental programs with good remuneration payment, incentive packages etc that will signify that the organization needs their personal inputs.
The study looked at the interplay between incentive packages and employees’ attitudes to work in some selected government parastatals in Nigeria and concluded that a number of incentives (monetary, tangible and non-tangible non-monetary) play a prominent and significant roles in enhancing employees right attitudes to work. Meanwhile, the present study is limited to incentive packages in selected government parastatals in Nigeria; further studies in this area should increase the sample size, attention should also be giving to the role of incentive packages on employees’ attitudes to work within the group. In addition, the method of data analysis used in this research work was limited to the use of standard deviation; further studies can engage some more detailed statistical method to arrive at findings that can be generalized.
Haven completed the study, the researcher recommends that there is need for intensive training programmes to be conducted by government and nongovernment agencies for awareness about high efficiency and productivity through effective non-monetary packages for staff with its associated good decision making, innovations, participation in implementation of government schemes, time and financial management and efficient utilization of their potentials.
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