Effective Material Management In Building Construction Site (A Case Study Of Imo State)
This research work traces the impact of effective material management in building construction site and a case study of Imo State of Nigeria as it obtainable in other developed parts of the country. This is very crucial, more so when materials gulp about 60% of the estimated cost of any given project.
The introduction part to the research estimated basic definitions for management of materials and effective projects delivery respectively to put them into proper perspectives.
On the other hand, the literature review discussed the following sub-heads of the term of reference:
- Sourcing of materials and requisition
- Transportation and handling
- Receiving and storage of materials on site
- Issuing of materials for use
- Quality inspection and control
Also of structural questions (questionnaire) and personal interview which are primary sources of data collection, even secondary sources such as dictionaries, professional journals, text book etc.
In the process of this study, the research based this study on construction firms and data analysis was by a single percentage technique to arrive at the findings.
This study after discussing the above points finally concluded by giving a number of recommendations aimed at achieving efficient and effective material management flow in the building construction industry. It is hoped that this work will be useful to existing and incoming construction firm and all those engaged in the construction industry in one way or the other.
Table Of Content
- Title Page
- Certification Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3Aims and objectives
- 1.4 Scope and limitation
- 1.5 Justification/significant of the study
- 1.6 Definition of terms
- 1.7 Research question
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Sourcing of material and requisitioned
- 2.2 Materials schedule for the contract on hand
- 2.2.1 Typical material schedule format
- 2.3 The bill of materials
- 2.4 The purchase requisition
- 2.5 Transportation and handling
- 2.6 Local transportation
- 2.7 Receiving and storing of material on site
- 2.8 Issuing of materials for use
- 2.9 Use of materials on site
- 2.10 Quality inspection
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Source of data
- 3.2 Simple plan
- 3.3 Description of data techniques
4.0 The Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Analysis and interpretation of data
Recommendations and Conclusion
- 5.1 Recommendations
- 5.2 Conclusion
Material as the general term is used to connote raw materials, spare parts and components, consumable stores, packeting materials, subassemblies etc. use to produce a good or services. For many manufacturing firms, materials account for more than half (1/2) of the production cost. As production activity becomes more highly automated, materials proportion of the project cost tends to increase. On the other hand, for a services outfit, the proportion of materials cost is lower.
The use of these materials and their control involves cost and could influence profit. Therefore, their efficient management is vital to avoid delays through storage, acquisition of goods unfit for their intended purpose, or serious expenditure and erosion of profit which is the basis for material management.
With this integrated approach to material management, all jobs encompassed by these activities would be under the overall direction of a material manager whose responsibility is to manage the procurement and delivery of material for company use.
Material resources are the heart and life wire of any construction industry. This is because the production and distribution activities as well as the general overall performances of any construction organization will be shaky in the case of under stocking or poor management of material.
Such materials are the gravel, sand and other aggregates which are found in building construction site. This materials if there not properly manage will lead to poor extension of building work.
1.1 Background of the Study
With the past (2) decades, a lot of laudable government programmes in Nigeria aim at the provision of physical infrastructure including private development schemes have remain largely unrealized. It is usually during the implementation (construction period) that most project fail in their goals forward realization.
The moment a building project has been conceptualized and design, the implementation of the design is usually the next phase. It is during this phase of implementation that a lot of vital decisions would have to be made which can either lead to the successful completion of the project on schedule or hinder it.
This phase puts into rest the managerial skills and ability of the project team in successfully executing of any building project, care must be taken to achieve the client’s requirements of early completion of works on schedules at an economic cost keeping the quality of job high.
The clients requirements listed above are inextricable linked together and are affected by the same factors. For instance an elongated project period would lead to increased building cost, which is completed undesirable. This is because machinery and labour would be employed for longer number of days than earlier budgeted for.
Unnecessary and frequent suspension of work on site due to the non-availability of building materials must be guarded against if building projects are to be successfully executed on schedules. Improper handling, storage and lack of adequate security for the building materials that result in damage and theft also contribute to the non-completion of project on time.
Other reasons that leads to the non-completion of building construction work on schedule are:
- The inability/refusal of the construction team to meet the labour requirement in the use of the building materials with a view of maximizing the use of time. This particular attitude of contractors tends from their yearning for increased profit margin. And thereby reducing the number and quality of materials rendered.
- Frequent accidents occurring on site as a result of loose safety guidance in the construction industry also attributes to the non-completion of project due to ineffective material management on building construction site.
- Bad management of human resources also hinder the early completion of project on schedules. This is manifested in the lack of attention being paid to staff involved in the handling these building materials and the frequent hiring and firing of personnel. Lack of motivation and incentives also constitute a problem to the smooth flow of building operations.
With an effective material management system would go a long way in addressing these problems. Other factors which may not necessary elongate the project period but lead to increase in building costs are as follows:-
- The choice of building materials to be purchased with respect to strength, durability, and recycling.
- The estimation of the exert quantity of building materials to be purchased for a work section is dicey issue and can easily lead to wastage and increased building cost. Because buying these material in little bits can lead to increased in overall cost and also buying excessive quantities that can also lead to wastage.
The provision of competent supervisor can help check building cost as wastage; theft and non-adherence to specification are avoided, thus ensuring quality control.
An effective material management system cannot be evolve without basing it on an overall work programme. One of the basic rules of management is that no project is likely to be successful unless the objectives are adequately defined and the necessary allocation made to labour and materials.
This rule is no less true when applied to the economy of a country. It is imperative for the government to decide which object are to be met within its program – choosing between a number of conflicting and overlapping social needs and laying down the proportion of the nations resources that is to be devoted to each.
According to Hersey and Blandard (2003) Management is “working with and through individual to accomplished organizational goal”.
Bladdle and Evander (2000) defining management in terms of the purpose also stated that “it is the efficient and effective use of resources to achieve objectives and achieving results with and through people”.
A common trend that appears in the definition is the manager’s concerns for accomplishing organizational goals and objectives. It can therefore be said that the achievement of organizational objectives through leadership in management.
Armed with the better understanding of management concepts, the production of the building can be approached bearing in mind the importance of the effective material management to the entire building project. To achieve this, objective must be clearly define, which within the construction industry is usually aimed at the completion of the project on schedules at the lowest possible price, keeping the quality of building work standard as specified.
The planning and control of all building materials resources for the realization of the building project is of vital important. Before commencement of work on site, ample time should be allowed for planning, while thought must be given to the way in which the building operation will be organized.
Only by proper planning can aids to productivity, such as mechanical plant, incentives and efficient use of labour and materials becomes fully effective.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Material manager have the most basic job of focusing the efforts of their subordinates on the objectives of the organization or enterprise. In the area of material management, this boil down to supplying materials at lowest possible total cost. To achieve this, the long and short term effect of the manager’s actions will have to be considered.
This research will look on how to solve the problem of effective material management such as follows:-
- Reduce the cost of materials
- Bring the inventory in line with demand on site and thereby reduced over investment.
- Increase productivity to a maximum, so as to enhance profitability.
- Make certain that finished product’s were ready to satisfy customers order on due time.
- Reduced wastage and reduce obsolesce to minimum.
- Enhance the company corporate image at all times.
1.3 Aims and Objectives
Bearing in mind the possibility of an elongated construction period with the implication of increased building cost. There is need for the effective management of material resources necessary for the realization of a building project. The planning, organizing and controlling of material such as building materials is of extreme important to the timely and successful completion of the building project.
This research project shall therefore seek to elucidate the importance of effective material management on a building project site with a view to ensuring the completion of project on schedule, improving the quality of jobs executed and checking building cost.
The specific objectives include the following:-
- To evaluate the impacts of material management in our construction industries.
- To determine the strategies currently in use in construction industries to manage materials effectively.
- To determine the strategies currently in use in project delivery.
- To identify the problems encounter by the construction industry in the implementation of the material management measures.
- To recommend alternative solution base on the research findings.
1.4 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this research project is to critically examine:-
- The principles of management in construction.
- The evolution of an effective material management system through the following:-
- The choice of building material to be purchased with respect to strength, durability, recycling etc.
- The timing of purchases to ensure the early arrival of building materials on site
- The transportation of building materials on site.
- The storage of building materials on site.
- The security of the building materials on or off site
- The handling of building materials
The researcher’s intention to cover the impact of effective material management in building construction site in Imo State. And some of the construction industries visited are OK 2000, Zerock construction and AIM Consultant by the researcher and it sample size will be about ninety (90), also the number of variables to be examined will be close to twenty.
This study was supposed to cover all aspects of site management but inevitable constraints that besiege every human endeavor compelled this research to be limited to the importance of effective material management on a building project site. This research is also restricted building project alone. Significant among these constraints were:-
Lack of sufficient money for transportation and extensive exploration of libraries of other institutions of higher learning made this work deficient in rich literature
The specific time for completion and subsequent submission of this work made it difficult to be as thorough as it should be.
1.5 Justification / Significant of the Study
This research would help curtail the incessant effective material in building construction site. The research work will also foster more important way of achieving work through planning and control of all materials resources necessary for the realization of the building project as a vital importance. And the reduction of wastage and reduce obsolesce to minimum. Finally it will enhance the company corporate image at all time due to their material management and project profitability.
1.6 Definition of Terms
It is referred to as the process by wish an organization is supplied with goods of services that it needs to achieve it objectives.
In this research work, structural work elements are refers as those element or parts of a particular building. Such elements are the roof member, walls, structural framing, beams, slabs, stairs and foundation.
This is other words that refers to a situation where a company notifies the purchasing department on materials requirements
This is forms that are use during purchase requisition. Its states the departments, dates, date ordered, supplier, ordered number, items, quality, quantity, description, whom to deliver to and signature.
It may be defined as an agreement between two parties which is intended by them to have legal consequences.
It is the owner, instigator, initiator, promoter, employer and financier on capital project.
He is a person who undertakes to complete a job in accordance with the contract document.
It is generally regarded as a collection of client professionals and contractors who team up in making architectural and engineering designs and specifications and transforming them into real structures with same kind of technology expertise.
1.7 Research Question
In order to successfully carryout this research work to its logical conclusion, the following research questions must be addressed
- What are the impacts of effective material management as regards to building construction site or project in Imo State?
- What are the strategies in use for building project as regards to effective management of materials on construction site?
- To what extent have these measures succeeded in improving the management of material in construction site?
- What are the problems encountered by the construction industry in the implementation of material management?
Recommendations and Conclusion
Having made extensive research on the effective material management in building construction site in Imo State Nigeria. The researchers data analyzed and findings established, the researcher is now going to come up with the following recommendation based the research:-
- Firstly, construction companies should be aware that materials management is a fact of construction all over the world and has a devastating effect in contract operation.
- Construction companies should map out approaches to improving the effect of material management in building construction site in Imo State.
- Great efforts should be made by firms to controlling the use of inferior materials that are enhancing quality control.
- There is need for effective communication both oral and written to enhance effective material management in building construction site.
- Construction industries should make proper and adequate provision for security men on the construction site.
- The Nigerian institute of building (NIOB) and other appropriate bodies should set up site management committees to prepare through materials studies or booklets on material control for use by general management
- That this site management committee should prepare a detail manual on the conservation of material within the configuration of the construction site for use by site workers.
It is important to appreciate the fact more complex and to the building designs becoming more complex and larger within the last century, it became absolutely necessary to introduce efficient ways of executing building schemes in order to ensure that wastage’s which arise as a result of lack of proper planning of a project is avoided.
Hence, the evolution of the concepts of project management, which is largely incorporates the overall planning, control and coordination of a project from the clients requirements and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to required quality standards.
Unlike small projects where works can be carried out with relatively little planning, it can be indeed disastrous to embark on larger a lot complex projects in the same manner, as a lot of losses would be incurred as a result of lack of coordination and control of the activities on site.
Based on the data analyzed the generality of respondents who are all experienced professionals within the Nigerian construction industry, seem to be of the opinion that in order to effectively manage a project successfully, an effective material management practices must be evolved.,
This can be achieved through the formulation of policies that takes into account the choice of building materials to be purchased with respect to durability, strength, recycling etc. The estimation of appropriate quantity of various materials required the timing of purchase to ensure the early arrival of materials on site, and the transportation of these materials to site.
Other guiding factors include the storage of building materials on or off site, the provision of adequate security for building materials on or off site and safety in handling materials on site also.
Further more quality control in using building materials and the human resources management practices cannot be ignored if the policy is to be effective.
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