Causes And Effect Of Youth Unemployment In Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State

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Causes And Effect Of Youth Unemployment In Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State. The study was carried out to find out the extent of youth unemployment in Anambra State, identify the causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State, and the effect of youth unemployment on Anambra State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths residents in Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State includes: rapid population growth, low standard of education, poor creation of employment opportunities, corruption, and rural urban migration. Furthermore, the study revealed that yhe causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State includes: rapid population growth, low standard of education, poor creation of employment opportunities, corruption, and rural urban migration. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should embark on rural development such as rural industrialization and electrification to curtail rural-urban drift. In engendering rural development, rural roads should be built, infrastructures provided to ensure that the rural areas are attractive to live in. this will enable the possibility of youths staying in the rural areas and getting productively engaged. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The problem of chronic youth unemployment is very evident in Nigeria. Every year thousands of graduates are turn out for whom there are no jobs. Nigerian streets are littered with youth hawkers and bike riders who ordinarily would have found gained employment in some enterprises; or would have demonstrated their skills and resourcefulness if there are enabling environments and reliable management structures on ground. Instead, the youths have now shifted their attention to Cybercrime popularly known as ‘419’.

This is the wrong use of technological innovation, which ordinarily should have been channeled towards technological advancement as witnessed in U.S., Canada, United Kingdom and China- the emerging world’s production and economic power. The large number of youths who are unemployment is capable of undermining democratic practice as they constitute a serious threat if engaged by the political class for clandestine activities (Adepegba, 20111; Ibrahim, 2011; Lartey, 2011; Olatunji & Abioye, 2011)

Simply put, unemployment descries the condition of people who are without jobs. The International Labor Organization (ILO) defines the unemployed as numbers of the economically active population who are without work but available for and seeking work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work (World bank, 1998:63). Also, Adebayo (1999) stated that unemployment exists when members of the labor force wish to work but cannot get jobs. Governments at all level should strive to create viable structure which will encourage the youths to think rationally towards job creation rather than job pilferage and almost unending unemployment proliferation in vogue in Nigeria.

Youth unemployment, therefore, could be described as the conglomerate of youths with diverse background, willing and able to work, but cannot find any; or cannot find the type of job that they are trained to do, and which they will be proud to do as their area of expertise. When the supply labor outstrips the demand for labour, it causes joblessness and unemployment. Given the lack of sufficient employment opportunities in the formal sector, young people may be forced to engage in casual work and other unorthodox livelihood sources, thus leading to underemployment (Echebiri, 2005; Gibb & George, 1990; Onah, 2011). Good Governance has to do with the perception of the higher number of the citizens on the general performance of their leaders, from local, state and federal levels; whether their socio-economic policies have affected their lives positively or negatively. Usually, the concept of good governance should provide structures where the youth segment of the society are gainfully employed either in the public or private sector of the economy through direct entrepreneurial activities. It also connotes a system where electoral processes give room for credible to emerge, those who must be accountable to the people and whom the people can collectively can say no to any of his or her unfavorable social and economic policies at all times.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, accurate unemployment rates are difficult to access. However, according to Oyebade (2003), Nigeria’s unemployment can be grouped into two categories: first, the older unemployed who lost their jobs through redundancy or bankruptcy and second, the younger unemployed, most of whom have never been unemployed. According to Awogbenle and Iwuamadi (2010), the statistics from the Manpower Board and the Federal Bureau of Statistics showed that Nigeria has a youth population of 80 million, representing 60% of the total population of the country. Also, 64 million of them are unemployed, while 1.6 million are under-employed. The 1990- 2000 data on youth unemployment showed that the largest group of the unemployed is the secondary school graduates. Also, 40% of the unemployment rate is among urban youth aged 20-24 and 31% of the rate is among those aged 15-19. Also, two-thirds of urban unemployed are ranged from 15-24 years old. Moreover, the educated unemployed tended to be young males with few dependents.

There are relatively few secondary school graduates and the lowered job expectations of primary-school graduates. The author, however, admitted that there is no consistent trend of unemployment rates in Nigeria. An increase in one or two years is sometimes followed by a decline in the subsequent years. But the fact remains that the tree of unemployment is growing progressively in our contemporary Nigeria, except some radical measures are adopted to retard its growth by the deliberate actions and reactions of genuine leaders. In view of the above, this study seek to examine the causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main study objective is to examine the causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State. while the specific objectives of the study include;

  1. Find out the level of youth unemployment in Anambra State.
  2. Identify the causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State.
  3. Ascertain the effect of youth unemployment on Anambra State

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the level of youth unemployment in Anambra State?
  2. What are the causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State?
  3. What is the effect of youth unemployment on Anambra State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Youth unemployment has no significant negative effect in Anambra State.
  • Ha: Youth unemployment has a significant negative effect in Anambra State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra East Local Government Area Of Anambra State is such an interesting subject or study; it is believed that the outcome of this research work will be of interest to Nigeria as a nation, the state and to each local government to showcase the need for adequate youth employment which would be as a prerequisite to the national development. The research work will provide them with vital information which will enhance an efficient and effective national development; it will provide the knowledge on some of the major challenges facing unemployment in Nigeria. This research work will also serve as a vital material to those who may want to carry out further research work in this regard.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra State. The study will be carried out in Anambra East Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The major limitation experienced in this study is the Pension Fund Administrators itself. Most of the information provided by the Legacy Pension Manager required explanation as to the reason behind such activities and actions. Nevertheless, there is always solution to a problem the problems were to an extent surmounted. There is also a limitation to textbooks, Journals and other materials in the library which are relevant to this study. I have to source for some materials outside the library. In addition, there was insufficient time for the study. In fact, it is very difficult for a student to go for a research work at the detriment of his lectures. This affects the expected quality of the research work.

Furthermore, inadequate finance has an effect on this research work due to the current situation of the economy which makes prices of things very high viz-avis the cost of transportation the pension fund administrator to obtain relevant materials to this research work were very expensive.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Unemployment:

Unemployment people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past five weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force.

Employment:

This is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract, one being the employer and the other being the employee. Youth development, the process of growing up and developing one’s capacities, happens no matter what we do.

Youth:

Is the time of life when one is young, but often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity).

Youth Development:

Or YD, refers to intentional efforts of other youth, adults, communities, government agencies, and schools to provide opportunities for youth to enhance their interests, skills, and abilities into their adulthood.


1.10 Organization Of The Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the causes and effect of youth unemployment in Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State. The study specifically was aimed at to find out the extent of youth unemployment in Anambra State, identify the causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State, and the effect of youth unemployment on Anambra State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were youths residents in Anambra East Local Government Area of Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent of youth unemployment in Anambra State is high.
  2. The causes of youth unemployment in Anambra State includes: rapid population growth, low standard of education, poor creation of employment opportunities, corruption, and rural urban migration.
  3. Youth unemployment has negative effect in Anambra State as it results to poor human capital development, decline in quality of life, increase in poverty, and crime rate.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Though government may not be able to create job enough for the teaming millions of Nigerian unemployed youths, they should therefore embark on massive youth development programmes in all the states of the federation with entrepreneurial skills acquisition and entrepreneurship development as a key target hence a viable intervening tool for unemployment.
  2. That there should be a massive reduction in the political corruption index of the country to enable youth development to thrive. This is because corruption, which has permeated the entire social structure of Nigeria, has robbed the country of developing a vibrant economic base as funds meant for development projects have been misappropriated, diverted, embezzled and stashed away in foreign bank accounts, while some incompetent and corrupt bureaucrats and administrators in the public enterprises and parastatals have liquidated their organizations. It is a pity that each successive government took turns to prey on the nation’s wealth, by using public power, resources, good will, utilities, instrument of abuse, and personal gains.
  3. That government should embark on rural development such as rural industrialization and electrification to curtail rural-urban drift. In engendering rural development, rural roads should be built, infrastructures provided to ensure that the rural areas are attractive to live in. this will enable the possibility of youths staying in the rural areas and getting productively engaged.
  4. The general school curriculum should be remodeled to inculcate technical skill acquisition which will help even secondary school graduates to have employable skills. This is against the complain that Nigerian graduates are unemployable leading to youths unemployment.

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