The Effect Of The Working Environment On Teacher Turnover In A General Primary School
1.1 Background of the Study
Retaining valuable staff is a worldwide issue. Managers and top-level officials are continuously confronted with the problem of maintaining personnel, and there is ample evidence that in the face of an ever-increasing high rate of employee turnover, retention of qualified staff has been a major worry for managers throughout the world (Chipunza, 2009). The focus of HRM research has evolved in recent years from individual Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and their effects on company performance to the overall HRM system and its effects on labor turnover (Khan, 2010). As the age of the knowledge worker develops, employee retention is becoming an increasingly crucial concern for businesses (Lumley, 2011). Because brilliant candidates in the global job skills market have the luxury of choice, the labor market currently belongs to employees (Harris, 2007). According to Cascio (2006), the expenses of recruiting, selecting, and training new personnel sometimes surpass 100% of the yearly compensation for the post being filled. As a result, every skilled employee turnover comes at a cost, and the overall direct and indirect expenses associated with one individual departing might range from one year’s pay and benefits to much more. Furthermore, the implications of competent individuals leaving a company go far beyond the significant expenses of hiring and integrating replacements. As a result, most organizations are looking for improved strategies to control turnover in order to keep valuable employees while still maintaining competitiveness and excellent performance (Samuel, 2009). Employee turnover is described as an employee’s movement towards and away from the organization (Rains 2008). Employee turnover outside of the organization is one of the motivating issues that many organizations in developed and developing countries face (Armstrong, 2009). Employee turnover may be divided into two categories. Voluntary and involuntary employee turnover are the two types of employee turnover. Voluntary employee turnover refers to turnover that is done voluntarily by an employee, whereas involuntary employee turnover refers to turnover that is done involuntarily by workers. According to Rains (2008), typical voluntary turnover is divided into three categories: high turnover (25 percent), moderate turnover (9 percent), and low turnover (2%). (Human Capital Index Report, 2005). The normal average of labor turnover in industrialized nations, primarily the United States of America, was 3.3 percent in the 2000s, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Policymakers, administrators, teachers, parents, students, and members of the wider community all have a responsibility to improve children’ learning. While each of these groups has a significant role to play. Almost all of these contributions are moderated by what teachers do. And what instructors accomplish is determined by their motives, capacities, and working environment. (2006, Leithwood) Schools must attract, train, and retain teachers in order to provide high-quality education. The capacity of a school to do so is influenced by its working role. Schools that can provide a safe, pleasant, and supportive working environment for their teachers, as well as suitable remuneration, are more likely to recruit and retain talented instructors and inspire them to perform their best. The working environment of teachers is significant for both students and instructors because it influences how much personalized attention teachers can provide to kids (Sumra, 2004). For example, large class numbers or disruptive students can make teaching and learning difficult. The physical geographical location of the job, as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace, such as a construction site or an office building, are all factors to consider. Other aspects related to the workplace, such as air quality, sounds, lever, and other Perks and Benefits of Employment, are usually included (Sumra, 2004).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The teaching environment has a significant impact on not just the learning process but also student performance. As a result, a good teaching environment is critical to rural schools’ ability to produce quality graduates (UNESCO, 2011). Despite Tanzania’s rising unemployment rate and the government’s efforts to enhance working conditions and centralize the recruiting process, there has been an increase in the number of limited teachers working in remote regions (Gayno, 1998). Under section 11(a) of the Public Service (Amendment) Act, Act No. 18 of 2007, the government has developed a recruiting mechanism. Despite the fact that the recruiting mechanism appears to be operating, newly hired government workers in rural regions have yet to report to their assigned work stations. Teachers working in remote locations are increasingly submitting transfer applications for a variety of reasons, including medical reasons, family concerns, and further studies (Bennel, 2005). According to Bennel (2005), the disparity between teachers working in rural and urban regions is widening, making work load in rural areas one of the issues of work life management. Many individuals, including teachers, blame the government for failing to provide and assist local governments in building a favorable climate and well-managed working circumstances in remote regions (URT, 2014). The causes might include a lack of motivational elements, according to Upendo (2011), who claims that inadequate infrastructure, large class sizes, bad working conditions, and a limited number of classrooms impact teacher turnover in rural locations. Other issues included a lack of teacher housing, inadequate transportation infrastructure, a lack of clean water, a lack of energy, and a variety of other social issues. According to URT (2014), the number of teachers hired for the first time and those who refuse to be moved is dropping in rural regions.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall goal of this research is to look at the impact of the working environment on teacher turnover in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools.
The following are some of the study’s particular goals:
- Determine the incidence of teacher turnover in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools.
- To learn more about the working conditions of a public elementary school in Obi LGA.
- To see if the working environment has an impact on teacher job satisfaction in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools.
- To establish the reasons of poor working conditions for teachers in public elementary schools in Obi LGA.
- To look at the impact of teachers’ bad working conditions on children’ academic performance in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the incidences of teacher turnover in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools?
- What are the working conditions of a public elementary school in Obi LGA?
- How does working environment have impact on teacher job satisfaction in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools?
- What are the reasons of poor working conditions for teachers in public elementary schools in Obi LGA?
- What are the impacts of teachers’ bad working conditions on children’ academic performance in Obi LGA’s public elementary schools?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will reveal the impacts of the working environment on teacher turnover at General Primary School to government officials at all levels, school administrators, lawmakers, parents, and other stakeholders involved in the formulation of education policy in Nigeria. This work will also serve as a reference for other researchers who desire to continue or begin similar research.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The population of Obis Local Government Public Primary Schools is the subject of this study.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
Due to time constraints and a lack of funds to undertake the study, the research was confined to a single local government area.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the effects of teacher turnover on education?
It leads to shortage of teachers forcing schools to hire substitute teachers leading to incoherence in delivery of curriculum content (Shields, Esch, Darling-Hammond and Luczak, 2005). Fourth, a high teacher turnover leads to low quality education by weakening of quality teaching (Loeb et al, 2005).
Does working environment influence teacher turnover intentions in Pakistan?
These findings are in agreement with the findings by Khan and Qadir (2016) who found a significance inverse relationship (r= -0.813, p<0.01) between working environment and teacher turnover intentions in Bahria schools and colleges at Karachi, Pakistani.
What happens when a teacher leaves a school?
Teacher turnover can also harm school operations by disrupting school stability, collaboration, collegial relationships among faculty, and results in a loss of vital institutional knowledge. Why teachers leave their jobs
What percentage of teachers leave the profession each year?
According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 8% of teachers leave the profession yearly and another 8% move to other schools, bringing the total annual turnover rate to 16%. That means that on average, a school will lose 3 out of every 20 teachers.