Effect Of WhatsApp On Student’s Academic Achievement And Retention On Computer Studies In Enugu Educational Zone
This study was carried out to examine the effect of WhatsApp on student’s academic achievement and retention on computer studies in Enugu Educational Zone. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students and teachers of some selected secondary schools in Enugu education zone. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that students invest into social networking in Enugu educational Zone very frequent. The study also revealed that the use of WhatsApp affects the study habits of students in computer studies. Further findings showed that the excessive usage of WhatsApp distorts student concentration and retention in computer studies. And WhatsApp has a significant effect on secondary school student academic achievement in computer studies. Therefore, it is recommended Students with phones having internet facility should be encouraged to either use it to supplement their research in the library rather than the usual chatting with friends all the time. Governments, communities, school administrators should help to reduce the challenges faced by the student in the use of WhatsApp in the school environment. Students should be advised to limit the time they spend on social media sites per day and encourage them to rather substitute those hours to read novels and relevant academic books to improve their knowledge. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The Internet revolution altered the world of information in terms of sharing, speed, storage, and retrieval of data in any format regardless of the user’s location. Numerous online technologies have arisen as a result of the Internet, and one technology that is creating waves in terms of information exchange and communication is social media networks. The age of the teacher as a repository of information has passed us by. The world is advancing at breakneck pace as a result of technological advancements. Notably, technology encompasses information and communication, which may be described as the manipulation and processing of data (texts, pictures, graphs, and instructions) for use with electrical and communication equipment such as computers, cameras, and telephones (Oleabhiele, 2015).
Social media’s growth has impacted every area of society, both positively and negatively. Social media has altered and influenced communication, education, and research in general. Among the plethora of online communication tools accessible, social networking sites (SNS) have emerged as the most current and attractive means of linking people worldwide (Aghazamani, 2010).Davis et al. (2012) define social media technology (SMT) as “web- and mobile-based apps that enable individuals and organizations to produce, engage with, and share new or existing content in multi-way digital environments. Individuals and groups may use this platform to build profiles, share, and exchange information about their various activities and interests. A unique feature of social media is that it is not restricted to desktop or laptop computers, but can also be accessed via mobile applications and smart phones, making it extremely accessible and simple to use. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram, and blogs are just a few of the social media sites that provide both online and mobile applications. WhatsApp can be used for social purposes, business purposes and educational purpose. WhatsApp programs group individuals by interests, hometowns, employers, schools and other commonalities. WhatsApp also provides learners with value resources for using the web as a tool in order to develop their understanding and solve problems, whether in school, at work, or in their private lives.
Today’s secondary school students’ usage of social media (WhatsApp) is leading in widespread academic failure (David, 2014). This is because students nowadays spend more time socializing than they do conducting research or reading their books. A rising number of Nigerian experts agree that social media addiction has become a distracting technology in higher education, interfering with students’ academic performance. Among the scholars is Oluwatoyin (2011), who conducted a survey of 1,860 Facebook users at Lagos State University and discovered that 90% of students were unable to achieve a cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of 3.50 or higher because they spent a greater proportion of their time on social media than on homework and study time (which could contribute to higher grade).As Al-Khalifa and Garcia (2013) point out, social media plays a range of functions in education, including offering a forum for the exchange of ideas and perspectives and enabling students to form their own communities to cooperate.
According to Ndaku (2013), students spend more time on social media sites than on academic pursuits, which has a negative effect on their academic achievement. There have been several disputes on various platforms and media outlets over social media’s effects on society, particularly on education. Several of these studies discovered a decline in students’ grades and academic performance, as well as a lack of time for studies, as a result of their engagement in social media networks (Banquil et al, 2009; Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010; Ndaku, 2013). On the other side, Pasek et al. (2006) “said that a site-specific culture can have a good or negative effect on the development of social capital and discovered that WhatsApp usage is not connected with poorer student grades, but rather with higher student grades.” Kolek and Saunders (2008) discovered social networks grab the total attention and concentration of the students and divert them towards non educational, unethical and inappropriate actions such as useless chatting, pornography, time wasting by random searching and not doing the rightful which is reading. Also WhatsApp has introduced many attractive tasks like, online addiction, advertisements etc. so that people can never get enough of these things. The social network addiction becomes a useless node for parents, friends and other associated people. Most business education students nowadays misses class due to arrangement they made with their friends online which could lead to missing of test if the lecturer decide to do one, and also they don’t meet the required percentage of attendance before exams which could lead to them not writing exams. After all these students cannot miraculously have good grades and this seems to be an issue which has affected students’ academic performance and retention in computer studies.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Since the development of social networking platforms in the 1990s, it is often considered that students’ academic performance has been neglected and challenged. Between their social networking activities and their academic work, there is a diversion, a distraction, and a division of focus. Students are found to pay more attention to social media than to their coursework. Students in secondary schools, notably in Enugu State, are getting increasingly absorbed by their smartphones and computers. As observed by Anyim (2020) social media provides the majority of students with Internet access, which has resulted in or impacted their academic performance. Students waste a lot of time on Facebook, instagram, tiktok, twitter, WhatsApp, and youtube.
Many parents and guardians are concerned that their children are spending too much time on Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and other social media platforms and are not getting enough study time. While parents are concerned about their children’s continual usage of social networking sites, many student continue to do so on a daily basis which seeming distort their retention on the studies especially in sensitive subject like computer studies. It is estimated that the average Nigerian adolescent spends around six to seven hours each day on the internet; some even stay up all night searching. When do they have time to read/research their books? According to the reviewed literature, users of social media spend between one and five hours per week studying, while non-users study between eleven and fifteen hours per week, and that the use of technology such as the internet is one of the most significant factors affecting students’ educational performance positively or negatively ( (Kapinski & Kirschner, 2011).
A preliminary assessment and interviews with a few instructors and students indicated a number of issues associated with students’ use of social media networks. These included a high prevalence of addiction among students, which interferes with their study time, improper use of language and spelling in social media conversation, and students being distracted from their academics. As such, this study will examine the effect of WhatsApp on student’s academic achievement and retention on computer studies in Enugu Educational Zone.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the effect of WhatsApp on student’s academic achievement and retention on computer studies in Enugu Educational Zone. This study was conducted with the following specific objectives:
- To find out the amount of time students invest into social networking.
- To ascertain whether the use of social media affects the study habits of students.
- To investigate whether excessive use of social media distorts student concentration and cognition.
- To establish whether social media has a significant effect on secondary school student academic achievement
1.4 Research Questions
- How frequent does students invest into social networking in Enugu educational Zone?
- Does the use of WhatsApp affects the study habits of students in computer studies?
- Does the excessive usage of WhatsApp distorts student concentration and retention in computer studies?
- Does WhatsApp have a significant effect on secondary school student academic achievement in computer studies?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Ho: Excessive use of social media does not affect student academic achievement and retention in computer studies
H1: Excessive use of social media significantly affect student academic achievement and retention in computer studies.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant to the lecturers, parents and students. This study will help the teachers of the school to know the influence that social media has on their students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the possible influence it has on them. The study is of significant to parents in the sense that they will know the possible effects these social media usage has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dog to their children on the usage of the social networking site. Empirically, the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve as reference material to scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study borders on theeffect of WhatsApp on student’s academic achievement and retention on computer studies in Enugu Educational Zone.The study will further discuss how social media distorts student cognition and concentration on computer studies and how frequent student utilize WhatsApp. The study is however delimited selected secondary schools in Enugu education zone.
1.8 Limitation of Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only secondary school in Enugu education zone. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This refers to the fastest growing and dominant trending the use of technology in modern terms. Social networking generally refers to the interaction of people using various social media platforms with the absence of geographical and time barkers.
Computer science is the study of computers and computing as well as their theoretical and practical applications.
Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of WhatsApp on student’s academic achievement and retention on computer studies in Enugu Educational Zone. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of WhatsApp on student’s academic achievement and retention on computer studies in Enugu Educational Zone. The study is was specifically set to find out the amount of time students invest into social networking, ascertain whether the use of social media affects the study habits of students, investigate whether excessive use of social media distorts student concentration and cognition, and establish whether social media has a significant effect on secondary school student academic achievement.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are teachers/students of the some selected secondary schools in Enugu education zone.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- Students invest into social networking in Enugu educational Zone very frequent.
- The use of WhatsApp affects the study habits of students in computer studies.
- The excessive usage of WhatsApp distorts student concentration and retention in computer studies.
- WhatsApp has a significant effect on secondary school student academic achievement in computer studies.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
Students with phones having internet facility should be encouraged to either use it to supplement their research in the library rather than the usual chatting with friends all the time.
- Students should be advised to limit the time they spend on social media sites per day and encourage them to rather substitute those hours to read novels and relevant academic books to improve their knowledge.
- Since the study confirmed that the use of social media sites had affected the academic performance of students negatively, there is the urgent need for the introduction of students to the availability of novels and other information resource or materials in the library that can help them academically.
- Schools should ensure teachers establishes WhatsApp group to facilitate learning, this will help the students to communicate with their teachers and classmates, transmit data, and assist learners to feel freshly
- Governments, communities, school administrators should help to reduce the challenges faced by the student in the use of WhatsApp in the school environment.
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