Causes And Effect Of Unemployment Of NCE Graduates In Benin City, Edo State

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Causes And Effect Of Unemployment Of NCE Graduates In Benin City, Edo State


This research was conducted to investigate “causes and effects of unemployment on N.C.E. graduates in Benin City, Edo State capital. In the course of carrying out the work, the researcher looked at the type of unemployment, some of which include frictional unemployment, seasonal unemployment, cyclical unemployment and residual unemployment. The researcher also focuses her attention on reviewing related literature. More so, it was revealed that some of the causes of unemployment are too many for N.C.E. graduates seeking jobs. Irrelevance of the course studies, the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. However, some recommendations were made in the closing chapter among which are; Government should restructure our education system to suit the demands of the society, Government should make agriculture more attractive, Good development plan, finally, government should provide necessary infrastructure to prevent the rural-urban migration, if these are provided by the government, it will help to reduce unemployment rate to an extent.

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

The rate at which unemployed N.C.E. graduates roam the street in Edo State without a job has begun to draw the attention of both government and public individuals. It is important to know the meaning of the “unemployment” in order to fully understand the causes and effect. According to Ihingan (1980), unemployment is spreading with urbanization and education. But the industrial sector has failed to expand along the growth of labour force thereby increasing urban unemployment. He went further to say that there are educated unemployed graduates who fail to get jobs due to structural rigidities and lack of entrepreneurial skills.

A person is s aid to be unemployed if in spite of his willingness and capacity to work, he cannot do owing to reasons inherent in organization of commodity product. This is a state of affairs in the labour market where the supply of labour is greater than the available resources.

According to Harvey (1985), unemployment exists when people are capable and willing to work but not able to find suitable paid employment. The problems of unemployment date back to the year 1930, even before the great world economic depression. In Nigeria, specifically Edo State by the year 1960, school leavers secured jobs with relative eased, skilled labour especially NCE graduates was scarce and difficult to come by and it was the employers who looked for them. However, it must be emphasized that this research is concerned with unemployable frictional unemployment, as it relates to unemployed NCE graduates n Edo State.

1.2 Statement Of The Problems

  1. Unemployment is on the increase
  2. Many NCE graduates are unemployed
  3. There is mass production of NCE graduates who do not have relevant skills.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of the study are to:

  1. Examine the cause and nature of unemployment among N.C.E. graduates
  2. Examine the effects of unemployment on N.C.E. holders in Edo State
  3. Recommend possible solutions to the identified problems of unemployment among this group of graduates, which can aid in reducing the effects.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the problems encountered as a result of being unemployed?
  2. Does unemployment lead to health problems?

1.5 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this project work focuses on the causes and effects of unemployment of NCE graduates in the College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin.

1.7 Significance Of The Study

This research was will be useful to the federal government, local government, tertiary institutions, students and general public. Since the causes and effect of unemployment has been identified and enumerated, it is hoped that the state government will undoubtedly tackle it and accelerate economic development in the Edo State.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

In the course of this study, some terms used in the process are defined as follows:


Unemployment is a condition or situation whereby persons capable and willing to work are unable to get paid employment.

Frictional unemployment:

This is the process of moving from one job to another by workers.

Structural unemployment:

These are physically, mentally and intellectually healthy people who cannot find them. It is this structural unemployment that the researcher of this thesis is concerned about.

Visible unemployment:

This refers to the association of a large number of people who do not have work and who are dearly looking for job.


This is as of physical or mental handicap, which means that although they would like to work, there is no work, which they are able to work.

Normal or transitional unemployment:

This occur when people change their jobs, that is, people merely desire to change or move to a different part of the country for better jobs prospect.

Cyclical unemployment:

This term refers to the alternate booms and slumps in the level of industrial activity.

Causes And Effect Of Unemployment Of NCE Graduates In Benin City, Edo State

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