The Effect Of Twitter Social Networking Sites On The Behaviour Of Secondary School Students (A Study Of Essence International Secondary School, Kaduna)

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The Effect Of Twitter Social Networking Sites On The Behaviour Of Secondary School Students (A Study Of Essence International Secondary School, Kaduna)


Abstract


Social media has been suggested as an effective tool for educational purpose. This study was conducted to have an analysis of the effect of twitter social networking sites on the behaviour of secondary school students. In addition, this study applied quantitative approach, and the questionnaire was conducted using 133 students. The results show that social media use is useful, enjoyable and easy to use. They believe that social media can be used positively and that it can provide significant interaction, engagement and collaborative learning thus improving learners’ performance. Some students however pointed out that if not carefully curtailed, social media has the capacity of been a distraction to learning. The results of this study also revealed the percentage and frequency of the tools of social media used for collaborative learning, sharing, discussion and publishing.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The world is moving at a jet speed as a result of advances in technology. Importantly, technology entails information and communication which may be defined as the handling and processing of information (texts, images, graphs, instruction) for use by means of electronic and communication devices such as computer, cameras, telephones (Oleabhiele, 2015).

The Internet revolution changed the information world with regard to sharing, speed, storage and retrieval of information in whatever form regardless of the person’s location. Through the Internet a number of web technologies emerged, and one technology that is making waves with regard to information sharing and communication are the social media networks. The evolution of social media has cut across all facets of society with its positive and negative impacts. Social media has transformed and impacted on communication, learning, research and education in general. Among the vast variety of online tools which are available for communication, social networking sites (SNS) have become the most modern and attractive tools for connecting people throughout the world (Aghazamani, 2010). Davis et al (2012), refer to social media technology (SMT) as “web-based and mobile applications that allow individuals and organizations to create, engage, and share new use regenerated or existing content, in digital environments through multi-way communication”. Through this platform, individuals and organizations create profiles, share and exchange information on various activities and interests. An interesting aspect of social media is that, it is not limited to desktop or laptop computers but could be accessed through mobile applications and smart phones making it very accessible and easy to use. Examples of these social media platforms both on the web and mobile application include Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Whatsapp, Instagram, blogs etc.
Communicating through the internet and social networking websites is quite different from communicating in person-to-person situation. When users communicate through these websites, they use things like instant message (IM) and chatting as well as status or Twitter updates to talk to friends and express themselves (Kaitlin, 2010). Kaitlin (2010) further opines that social networking websites also affect the way we receive information and news.

The sites open up different portals through which we get information and create more diverse news outlets.
The internet is a global system of interconnected computers that uses the standard internet protocol suite (TCPT/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide (Wikipedia, 2011). Castells, (1996) it is a network of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government computer networks linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.

Castells, (2001) defines the internet as a worldwide interconnection of computers and computer networks that facilitates the sharing of exchange of information among users.

Wikipedia, (2011) explains that the internet carries a vast range of information resources and services to support traditional communication media including telephone, cinema and redefined by the internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over internet protocol (VOIP). According to the Wikipedia, (2011) newspapers, books and other print media are adapting to website technology or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, internet for a , and social networking oppapers. Com/essays/2003.

According to cheong and Morrison, (2008), the internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and locations, especially with the speed connections, especially with the spe ed connections and web applications. Also, the internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means especially through mobile internet devices, mobile phones, data cards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers which allow users to connect to the internet from anywhere there is a network supporting that device’s technology (Goldsborough, 2009).

Castells, (2001), asserts that within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, services of the internet, including email and web, may be available. Services offered and wireless data transmission charges may be significantly higher than other access methods. The internet is fast becoming the dominant means of communications and commerce in the 21st century, its play the main role in changing communication throughout the world and also impacting on global economic system.

According to McLuhan, (1964) globalization has forever changed the world in which we live to a world that has become increasingly interconnected. McLuhan, [1964] also asserts that the internet is perhaps the most prominent tool that has facilitated the interconnectedness. Internet network has shortened the communication distance by dimension of time and places together, giving birth to form of social networks.

A study (Goldsborough, 2008) indicates an increasing stage in social network usage. This increase is considered as another important change of the world’s information history. Students were mainly considered the first group users of social networks, and most white- collar professionals now also use them (Kim, 2008).

The Wikipedia (2011) narrates that the internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and communication, thanks to its basic features such as wide spread us ability and access. There are many social networking sites, such as face book, twitter, MySpace, HI5, Nimbus, 2go, Blackberry chart (Bbchart), xanga, yahoo and Bebo has created new ways to socialize and interact.

According to Rehmeyer, (2007) However, the internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool, leading to internet censorship by some states. This is however rare, the presidential campaign of Howard dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the internet.(Rehmeyer, 2007). Social networking websites have expanded rapidly over the last few years and have created new and varied channels of communication via internet, whether through personal computer or mobile phones. Many people are now members of social networking websites.

Cooke and Buckley, (2008) predict that the internet would be the marketing tactics of the future. Also, Cheong and Morrison, (2008) explain that with technology advances and the growth of digital media usage advertisers are seeking new ways to reach consumers. Advertisers spend over N304, 000,000,000,000 billion on social media advertising (marketer, 2009). Predictions indicates that advertisers may be spending almost #532,8064 12291382 trillion ($3.5b).

According to Wikipedia, (2011) the social network site is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest financial exchange or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.

However, according to Simmels, (2001) people have used the idea of “social network” loosely for over a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international. The type of social network helps determine a network’s usefulness to its individuals.

Twitter which is the subject matter of this study is one of the fastest growing social networks in terms of users in the world.

According to shields and Maggie,(2011) Twitter is an online social networking service that enables its users to send and read text- based posts of up to 140 characters known as “tweets”. Twitter was created in 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched in July of that year (Twitter search team, 2011).

Also, the Wikipedia (2011) narrates that twitter rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with 200million users as 2011, generating over 200million tweets and handling over 1.6billion search quarries per day. Twitter inc; the company that operates the service and associated website, is based in san Francisco, California, with additional servers and offices in san Antonio, Texas, Boston, and New York (Twitter.com(2010).

According to Twitter blog (2010) the tripping point for Twitter’s popularity was the 2007 south by south west festival in San Francisco, during the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.

According to compete.com (2010) the company experienced rapid growth with 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweet posted per quarter in 2008. Johnson (2009) in February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded 750 tweets sent each second.

However, Johnson (2009) described the basic mechanics of twitter as “remarkably simple”. He further added, as a social network, twitter revolves around its users.

The use of social media (like facebook, Youtube, twitter and whatsapp) by secondary school students today is resulting to mass failure of students in academic achievement (David, 2014). This is because students these days spend more time chatting with their friends rather than engaging in research or reading their books. A growing number of Nigerian scholars agree that addiction to social media sites have become a distractive technology to students’ academic work in higher education. Among the scholar is Oluwatoyin (2011) who surveyed 1,860 Facebook users from the Lagos State University and found that 90percent of the students could not get up to cumulative grade point average (CGPA) above 3.50 because they had spent a large part of their time on social media than on their home work and study time (which could contribute to higher grade).

Social media plays a variety of roles in education as highlighted by Al-Khalifa and Garcia (2013) which include providing a medium to share ideas and opinions as well as allowing students to build their own communities to collaborate with each other. As stated by Ndaku (2013), students spend a lot of time on social networking sites than in their academic activities and this affects their academic performance.

There have been a lot of debates on various platforms and media as to the impact that social media has on society and specifically, its effect on education. Some of these studies found a drop in students’ grades and academic performance, and lack of time for studies as consequences of social media network participation (Banquil et al, 2009; Kirschner and Karpinski, 2010; Ndaku, 2013). On the other hand, Pasek et al. (2006) “stated that a site-specific culture can both positively and negatively affect the building of social capital and found that Facebook usage is not positively associated with lower grades of students and rather Facebook users scored higher grades”. Kolek and Saunders (2008) did not find any correlation between GPAs of student users and social network participation such as Facebook. Rather social network sites (SNS) promote interactions among students and teachers (Ahmed &Qazi, 2011).

This study accordingly focuses on the effects of social network (twitter) on the behaviors of secondary school students in essence international secondary school, Kaduna.

This study is therefore interested in finding out how twitter as a social network is changing behavior of secondary school students at Essence international secondary school, Kaduna.

1.1. Brief History of Essence International Secondary School

Essence international secondary school was founded in 1982; Essence began as a nursery school and expanded over the years to include all grades up to the final year of secondary school.

Essence international school is located in quiet corner of Kashir Ibrahim Road, in Kaduna, a beautiful and dynamic city in Northern Nigeria. The school is four-tier institution offering quality education in an educationally stimulating atmosphere for students in pre-nursery, nursery, primary and secondary.

The most recent dimension in Essence is the African heritage village which houses the play. Village and the bi-lingual primary school where the student learn in English and students learn in English and French. They also have an enhanced curriculum with a focus on African history, geography, and culture.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Twitter as a social network is not widely used among many of the student’s in Essence international secondary school, because the social site to them is not teen’s friendly but is rather a matured social networking, but it is not like face book. In fact, Twitter works quite differently from social networks: because instead of indicating a mutual relationship, twitter focuses on only one – way action, that means you want to receive information, in the form of tweets from someone (twitter help center, 2011). The students added that Twitter is more advanced in terms of language structure i.e. the complexity of the use of diction is quite different in twitter in the sense that you cannot abbreviate spellings anyhow as in the mobile phone text spelling; rather you spell out and construct standard grammar. Face book is the social networking site that is mostly preferred by the students in the sense that face book


1.2 Objective of the Study

This study was conducted with the following objectives:

  1. To examine the impact of social media on academic performance among secondary school students in Lagos State.
  2. To find out the amount of time students invest into social networking.
  3. To ascertain how the use of social media is affecting the study habits of students.
  4. To identify the benefits obtained from using the social media.

1.3 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses One
  • Ho: There is no relationship between twitter social networking and academic performance.
  • Hi: There is a relationship between twitter social networking and academic performance.
Hypotheses Two
  • Ho: Twitter Social media has negative effect on student’s habit
  • Hi: Twitter Social media has positive effect on student’s habit

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the teachers, parents and students. First of all, this study will help the teachers of the school to know the influence social networking site has on their students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the possible effect it has on them. Secondly, it is of significant to parents in the sense that they will know the possible effects these social networking sites usage has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dog to their children on the usage of the social networking site. Thirdly, it will enable the students of the senior level so that they will be aware that, apart from the social benefits of this social networking site, using the sites more than necessary will pose possible dangers to their health.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to affects of Twitter social networking site on behavior of essence international secondary school Kaduna students; and of Twitter the students if focuses on what the students use social networking site for the groups of students that use Twitter social networking site; the ways the students that use Twitter and for what purposes. The target population focuses specifically the senior secondary school of the Essence international school, Kaduna.

The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Media:

This means the way through large number of people receive information and entertainment that is television, radio, newspaper, magazine and internet.

Social Media:

Means media for social interaction using highly accessible and able publishing technique. It’s also a form of electronic communication to share information, ideas, personal messages and other content.

Networking:

This is the exchange of information or services among individuals, groups or institutions. It’s also the establishment or use of computer.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  1. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of impact of twitter social networking on secondary school students.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of social media and students’ academic performance.


5.2 Summary

This study aimed at having a critical analysis of impact of social media on students’ academic performance among senior secondary students. Objectives were raised and hypothesis analysed in chapter 4 after which we summarized and made conclusions in chapter 5.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.

From the collected and analysed, we found out that there is a relationship between twitter social networking and academic performance and that twitter Social media has negative effect on student’s habit.


5.4 Recommendation

Students should reduce their exposure to social media and pay more attention to their studies.

  1. Students, especially those willing to record huge academic success should guide themselves against the use of social media.
  2. The government, schools and other well to do individuals should encourage hard work by rewarding successful students through scholarship schemes and other incentives.
  3. The government should consider the possibility of evolving a policy on teenagers’ exposure to social media.

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