Effect Of Training And Development On Employees Productivity (A Case Study Of Yaba LG)

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Effect Of Training And Development On Employees Productivity (A Case Study Of Yaba LG)


Abstract


This study examines the impact of Training and development on effective performance of workers in Yaba Local Government Area. A study of the First bank Plc, it becomes imperative because of the poor selection of personnel’s, lack of proper assessment and evaluation of employee’s performance in the organization and the need to tackle the problems for efficient and effective performance.

The findings discovers that majority of the staff of Yaba Local Government Area understood what Training and Development meant; believed that Training programmes have paramount increase effect on their skills in some particular jobs as well as having a positive contribution to the economic wellbeing of the organization.

It is recommended that the importance of training and development is a vital and very indispensable tool in achieving an organizational efficiency and effectiveness. At this vantage point, it is necessary to embrace training and development concept to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in every organization to match with the current technological change and sophistications in the world.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

One of the main objectives of any organization is to provide goods and services to the general public. Organization performs these all important role through the prefer utilization men and material/resources available within the organization.

In order to perform these crucial roles in the organization, there is need to train and develop their employee. Above all, the world is dynamic and in order to keep abreast with the changes on the organization’ environment, in-service training and developments had become imperative.

In local government, it is believed that it is immaterial installing computer in the ministries, when most of the typists have met been trained on how to use them. This emphasizes the need to train and retain these typist for them to be computer literate, in order to make effective use of the computers further productivity.

In view of the changing operating environment and these introduced by technological development the employee must change to keep pace with the change day times. There must be a deliberates training of men and women for new task and for new ways of behaviour.

There should also be constant orientation and re-orientation of employee for highly productivity.

According (Rae, 2001) in-service training is on the job or off-the job training that is designed and performed to help an individual or group to learn to perform a job or task effectively. In-service training is given to now employees so that they can quickly become part of the organization and start contributing meaningfully to its success. They hence training is also given to exist employees to re-orientate themselves after major organizational change.

In-service training according to Akinyele (1992) means “specific learning activities which are job oriented directed towards the improvement of the job holders present and future on the job performance and contribution towards the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. Stoner (1982) sees in-service training as “the teaching of technical statistic to non-managerial personal”. As a matter of fact, staff training is the major concern of management at all levels and line managers and responsible for identifying the in-service training needs of their staff.

It is an obvious fact that a major problem that plagued this country as low level of productivity due to dearth of trained personnel .

According to Richard L. Meier (1972), “at any moment in its course, every human society possesses a fund of knowledge which it the residue of accumulated experience of prior generation in the society as well as of other societies from which it may have learned or borrowed”. Naturally, this funds of knowledge has the property of growing and increase over time as long as the society the society maintains itself it was also emphasized that knowledge itself deals with both a comprehension of environmental forces and an understanding of inter personal relationships with frame work of customs that have been mutually accepted. The application of this collective wisdom therefore tends to maintain the unity of the society, the risk of obsolesces. Heath is wealth so said the adage. To maintain the society, good heath must be assured, and the work has to be done through human resources for overall benefit of the larger society, especially in the health sector.

According to the world health organization (WHO) bulletin (1998),” death rate is increasing along with infant mortality, complications of pregnancy which occurred in over 15 to of the women. The major killer or crippling childhood diseases like malaria, diarrhea, measles, malnutrition, tuberculosis are increasing in Africa.

Chief Augustus Adebayo (1982), writing on inadequate in-service training on local government contends much progress has been made in the variants local government of Nigeria towards training and staff development during the past decade and it is again this background that the present day Nigeria places emphasis on manpower training in all major expect of our socio-economic and political endeavours at the national, state the local and local government levels. Upon all these the scale of in-service training is still fall far short of normal requirements for efficient in terms of job performance. In-service training and development therefore veritable tools for enhancing efficiency and higher productivity.

To tackle to the above problem, there is need for adequate trained manpower resources for productivity. This therefore the study of this research work.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The failure of the first and second development plans of Nigeria according to Adebayo where partly attributed to inadequate and lack of trained manpower to handle the development plan as programmed. Since the country has been experiencing low productivity due to the dearth of training personnel.

According to Sam Aluku (1984), “productivity cannot be increased due to inadequacy of personnel, crude implement we are using in local government for instance health for all by the year 2000, the goal set by the world health organization for its member nations called out be achieved because of manpower structural inadequacy and lack of material drug, etc.

The problem of this study therefore, is to analyze the inherent disadvantages that has followed this lack of in –service training of personnel and proper solutions that if religiously adopted, would enhance employee effectiveness, world capacity output as well as place the country among the community of industrialized nations with adequate trained wealth personnel for the improvement of health service generally. In-service training have become a “sin qua non” for higher productivity.

To carry out this research, the researcher posed the following research questions:

  1. How often does Yaba local government commission conducted in-services training programmes for her workers?
  2. Does Yaba local government have staff training programmes?
  3. Has staff on in-services training any contribution to the development of local government?
  4. How adequate is the existing training programmes of Yaba local government.

1.3 Objective of the Study:

The objective of the study is to:

  1. Ascertain the extent to which Yaba local government commission organize in-services training and development programme for its workers.
  2. Examine the extent- to which the in-service and development programmes organized by Yaba local government commission have positively influence higher productivity.
  3. Identify the hindrances to effective training generally and Yaba local government in particular; and
  4. Determine the extent of damage done by inadequate manpower training in local government.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This research work will help the local government any organization as well as individuals in assessing the effect of training and development on employee productivity.

The research finding would also helps policy marker and management consultants to adopt adequate strategies in employee training and development.

It will help the Yaba local government in general and local government commission in particular to appreciate the importance of training and development to employee productivity. The study will guide the goods government of Yaba to identify areas of training needs to improve workers productivity.

Finally, the work would highlight the effect of training and development on employee productivity to the administrators of various ministries in the local government who do not give service attention on training and development of employee.


1.5 Theoretical Framework

In view of the topic of this project the researcher is exposed to many management theories, otherwise known as classical theory of management. The scientific management was propounded by one of the earliest management scientific F.W. Taylor.

Scientific management school comprised those who first applied scientific principles to management with a view of aiding increased productivity and efficiency in the work place. Their work formed the basis of the further development of other management thoughts. In the beginning of the 20th century therefore, most of the previous management and practices were found to be inadequate with to meet the needs of the causes of inefficiency in the management of an organization and experimentation to find more efficient methods and practices. It was from such experiments and observations members of the group where referred to as the classical school, being pioneers in the drive for a systematic approach to the management process.

Summary, the scientific management involves the following principles:

  1. All managers most be trained to use scientific principles replacing the old rule of thumb methods for solving problems.
  2. Managers should select and train workers rather than let them choose their work habit and procedures.v
  3. Managers should divide the work possible between themselves and workers.
  4. That managers should cooperate motivate the workers the workers tov ensure that all work is done in accordance with the scientific management.
  5. The scientific management theory therefore from a good guide for this study since in emphasized the training the development of employee for the higher productivity and attain organizational objective.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The researcher is aware of the existence of other agencies that train employee in Nigeria. It is outside the focus of this study to research other agencies. The main focus of this study if find out the impact of in-service training and development of employee in Yaba local government commission. The interest of the study is relevance to training and development, the extent of achievement and the extent to which these have helped to improve employee productivity.

The geographical coverage of the study is Yaba local government commission. The local government is located south east of the country. The study will focus on the activities of in-service training and development in the commission. The effect of training needs in other ministries or agencies in Yaba local government and other local government in federation can only be alluded to as a way of using such impacts to classify what happens in Yaba local government. However, such performances in other part of the state will not in themselves constitute subject for study.


1.8 Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1
  • H0: There has not been a significant effect of training and development on employee’s productivity.
  • Hi: There has been a significant effect of training and development on employee’s productivity.
Hypothesis 2
  • H0: There has not been improvement of training and development in on employee’s productivity.
  • Hi: There has been improvement of training and development in on employee’s productivity.
Hypothesis 3
  • Hi: Staff training in Yaba local government exist as a matter of government polices.
Hypothesis 4
  • H0: Lack of in-services training has adversely affected the job performance of workers in Yaba local government.
Hypothesis 5
  • H0: Insufficient budgetary allocations have militated against government training programmes in Yaba local government.
Hypothesis 6
  • H0: Political influence affect staff training in Yaba local government.
Hypothesis 7
  • H0: Ethnic or geographical location affect staff training in Yaba local government.
Hypothesis 8
  • H0: On –the- job training is the most popular training programme in the Yaba local government.

1.9 Definition of Terms

It has become necessary to define certain concepts, term and acronyms used in this project in order to gained ear audience on what we used these terms for in this project.

Local government:

A local government is a system of subordinate government made up of elected representative of people which has territorially defined constituency, corporate personality, power and functions to exercise in their locality.

In-service training:

Is education for employee to help them develop their skills in a specific discipline or occupation. In-service training take place after an individual begins work responsibilities.

Job performance:

Is how the employee is carrying out its job and ability to operate efficiently in relation to consider how successful it is.

Employee:

Is a person who works for somebody or company in return for wages.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the summary of findings and policy recommendations followed by the conclusion. With the last section of the chapter containing suggestion for further studies. The study was conducted in Yaba Local Government Area.


5.2 Summary

The research had attempted to look at the impact of Training and Development of job enhancement in the accomplishment of organizational objectives. The research problems were identified, the problems defined, research questions raised, significance of study stated and lastly some terms were defined.

The second chapter is where the researcher tried to review various literature relating to the research topic. He also looked at various theorists in terms of their contributions to the topic under study, that is, Training Development. It also highlighted the procedural approach and the assessment of training at different levels.

The various ways by which training needs could be identified were also discussed. The literature review also delved into describing the various methods of training for different sets of individuals where some concepts like case study, internship, conference, Job Rotation, Apprenticeship, Vestibule Audio Visual etc. were used, while also stating the factors that determine the use of each of the methods and their various limitations.

The importance of Training and Development programmes were stated.

The chapter three of the study offered explanation as to the methodology and the data collection technique, sampling technique employed, sample size and the method of data analysis.

Chapter four presented and discussed the data of the study at which it was conducted and lastly the contribution of organizational objectives.

The result of the research indicated many discoveries. The major findings are summarized as follows:

Majority of the staff of Yaba Local Government Area understood what Training and Development meant; believed that Training programmes have been able to increase their skills on a particular job as well as having a positive contribution to the economic wellbeing of the. Organization.

This however may not be unconnected with one form of the training or the other that they have attended.

It was also discovered that a little have average in the number of respondents answered that their training needs had been met: This goes to state that frantic efforts must be made to identify training needs. It was also discovered that the organization does not somewhat value training and when it was probed further the following were revealed.

  • The organization is miserly spending on training development programmes and when it does it’s usually used to cover up uninsured expenditure.
  • Training is not carried out in good spirit.
  • Training needs are not properly identified
  • Training at times are not conducted in line with employee’s jobs.
  • It was also discovered that some inadequacies existed in the following areas;
  • The timing and duration of training
  • Venues or environments for training
  • Resource persons

The above goes to confirm the earlier claim that the organization does not spend much money on training and development. As earlier pointed that frantic efforts should be made to identify training needs, this was also buttressed in the frequency of training where a little above average in the number of respondents answered training should be conducted when the training need arises.

The study also pinpointed the fact that majority of the staff were not made to assume higher responsibilities. However, this should not be so, they should be given higher tasks to really practicalise what they have learnt


5.3 Conclusion

Manpower training and development is necessary for all categories of workers in an organization. This corroborates the finding by Onah (1988) who pointed out that “it is the systematic and continuous development of knowledge, skills and attitudes which could prove beneficial both to the organization and to the individual in achieving the objectives of the organization.

This would lead to organizational growth and efficiency. As stressed by a handful number of respondents, there is need for improvement in the training facilities i.e. quality knowledge and credible resource persons or consultants should be called upon, who have the potentials to deliver, who have the potentials to deliver, who have the necessary training materials and the provision of a very conductive environment for training and development From the employees’ perspective, the practice of training a worker on his current task may not really yield maximum return to the organization. Rather the employees prefer to be trained in preparation for tasks. They argued that having been on the job for some time, there is nothing new to be learnt again, i.e. to them it is a duplication of effort.

While to the management on the contrary argued that employee are sent on training to perfect what they might have learnt through on the job training, they received from their colleagues, who were formerly performing their present task. In other words, rather than train an employee on what he has no idea of, it is better to try and improve his knowledge on what he is doing presently. With this work, the researcher hopes that some light has been shed on the issue of manpower training and development as it enhances workers’ productivity.


5.4 Recommendations

Traditionally, the value of training and development has been accepted implicitly. Information gathered from this study also shows that investment in human resource capital generally pays off. In order to justify the organizations expenses on training programmes, the following recommendations may be considered. The first recommendation as asserted by Fenn (1986) who pointed out that “manpower Training and Development as a process in an organization which must reflect or show a reflection of skills, potential, training and development. Person who expects to rise in the organization must therefore seek development opportunities. Further training and development may involve rotation through a variety of jobs and through organization, all of which imply change.

The second is that, management should recognize the important role of training and development in any formal organization, to this end, basic training materials especially audio visual aids, should be acquired to make training more effective.

Trainers should be adequately motivated. This will attract competent and quantified staff to training and development department. The third recommendation is that manpower training and development is time consuming as well as financially and emotionally draining, the expected reward far outweighs the immediate cost, thus the management should give some room for the effect of the training to materialize and not immediately.

Furthermore, another is the one listed by variable that;

  1. In an organization where customer’s goodwill and quality of goods and services rendered by employees count heavily, as training brings direct financial gain.
  2. Job safety can be promoted by training and development.
  3. Manpower training and development is intimately linked to the delegation of job.

Again, the management should allow supervisors to give the employees reasonable freedom of action on the job so as to practicalise what they have actually learnt during training and in other cases make them assume higher responsibilities.

In addition, since improved job performance is crucial to the growth and survival of any organization, it follows that individual employees, job need be acquired through appropriate and well-designed training programmes. For this programmes to be effective, it should be conducted whenever the need arises inferring from the data gathered, management should also provide the resources necessary for the programme and its implementation.

Management should ensure that workers are motivated during training and rewarded after training. It should also set expected standard as to what is expected from workers undergoing training, suggestions of employees should be considered by management.

Finally the management should allow the subordinate to give suggestion and their suggestions should put into consideration.

It should be noted that if all these recommendations are adhered to there will be a greater productivity, no absenteeism, no workers’ unrest, and low labour turnover will be experienced in the organization. With this work, the research hopes he had shed more light on the issue of manpower training and development as it enhances workers’ productivity. However because research is a continuous process, no study could be exhaustive.

Further studies on the assessment should shed more light on the intricacies of the assessment.


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