The Effect Of Tobacco Smoking On The Academic Performance Of Students: A Case Study Of Students Of College Of Education, Ekiadolor
This research study was solely designed to examine the issues of tobacco smoking and its effect on academic performance of students of college of education ekiadolor. In the course of this research, the concept of tobacco and the effect as well as misuse was looked into. The study was aimed at finding out how parent, family background, peer group and curiosity of students etc contribute to tobacco smoking problems among students, with special focus on drugs like cigarettes, alcohol, coffee, kola nut show that some students of college of education ekiadolor smokes. The investigation also show that tobacco smoking induce memory loss and alters behaviour. It was also discovered that tobacco usage affects academic performance and causes loss of ambition. Therefore, the work recommends proper educational consequences of tobacco smoking, the provision of counselling services to school and the imposition of some levies to restrict the production of tobacco. It also recommends that the mass media should month heavy campaign against tobacco and also calls for the introduction of meaningful and educational activities to the students.
1.1 Background of the Study
Tobacco leaves is the most utilized part of the plant and it could be used naturally (fresh) or processed (dry) systematically into other forms of products as it is being today, e.g. cigarette, snuffs, pipe etc statistics so far show that 2/3 of European, Asian and most African countries use this product in one form or the other although data has show that makes (product) accessible for the end users. Tobacco is a naturally occurring alkaloid has some forms of chemical component which make it one of the world most solid natural occurring alkaloid, especially when synthetically manufactured.
Smoking origin can be traced back to about 3,000 BC, smoking as it were can be linked to ceremonial burning of leaves, incense in magical ceremonial and religious practices among the Egyptians and Maya India in south America, until the spread of tobacco smoking in the fifteenth century, after Spanish explorers had been introduced to it by the Mexican and Caribbean India, taking in of smoke. And fumes had remained primarily only a priestly and occasionally a medical function. After the introduction of smoke to Europe and Asia and Africa in the era of slave trade, then tobacco was smoke with pipes and sometimes grounded to smoke fine granule as smoke as snuff this habits of smoking was immediate by the slave from their master and hence the habit of smoking was cultivated and spread from one geographical location to another and from generation to generation. Tobacco smoke contains poisonous substances such as nicotine, alkaline carbon monoxide, ammonia, prussic acid and a number of aldehydes and tars, in all tobacco contain some 4,000 chemicals. Tobacco smoking was found to be one of the most causes of cancer of the esophagus, nasopharynx, mouth, larynx, kidney, lungs and bladders and well as causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, health disease, stroke and other cardiovascular disease. Smoking also increase asks associated with oral conceptive use and exposure to occupational hazards such as besties.
The question that readily comes to our minds is “why do we smoke” the only answer is that smoking has no physiological benefit, but emotional satisfaction. According to the oxford concise medical dictionary, tobacco is the dried leaves of the plant niceties bacum or related species, used in smoking. Once a smoker develop dependence on smoking (cigarette) led to risk of emotional, physiological problems and health risk, according to the surgeon generals advisory committee on health appointed by the us public health service in 1964 proof that cigarette smoking is a serious health hazard most especially cancer.
From numerous studies conducted over decades the committee draw evidence and concluded that inhalation of tobacco smoke by smokers and non smokers alike has been found to increase the risk of heart disease and respiratory problems. Usman and Krasner (1962) view tobacco smoking in relation to society expectations of proper use, Usman and Krasner explains that students acts in a way that is harmful and improper to themselves and as a result this affects the academic performance. To most individual social expectation usually implies that one can take (smoke) as many amount of tobacco as long as it falls within the limit of tolerable behaviour in reality a smoker commonly responds more to their tolerance level than to the social norm for tobacco use. Tobacco smoking is characterized by behaviour and other responses that include compulsion to take to tobacco in continuous or periodic basis in order to maintain its academic performance and sometime to avoid discomfort. Tolerance may or may not be present in students dependent on tobacco.
According to Sainberg and Byer (1973) were of the view that development of tolerance is indicated when repeated administration of dosage of tobacco provide a decreasing effect and an increasing higher dosage must be liken in order to obtain the original effect, this lead to habituation to smoking i.e. the continuous desire to repeating the use of tobacco continuously.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
The main intention of this project is to investigate the effects of tobacco smoking among students of college of education ekiadolor Benin, and the role of parents and lecturers on curbing the use of or smoking of tobacco among students and also the effects of tobacco smoking on their academic performance. The researcher will investigate the extent of the following sub-problems
- To find out if the students of college of education ekiadolor are aware of the armful effect of “tobacco smoking”.
- To ascertain the various method or ways adopted by families and teachers in curbing tobacco smoking among their wards and students respectively.
- To investigate why students smoke
- To find out the health and social implications of smoking.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose and aims of this study is to ascertain the effect of tobacco smoking on academic performance of students of college of education ekiadolor and also to prospect ways of curbing the uptakes of smoking (tobacco) by students, though the study is limited to students of college of education ekiadolor, the research findings can also be applicable to other students on other higher institutions of learning.
The purpose of the study therefore is to supplement to existing findings on the topic, the purpose of this study geared towards the following;
- To determine the effect of tobacco smoking on students academic performance.
- Examine the role played by the families and lecturers to guide the students and discourage them.
- To make recommendations and suggestions certain ways of curbing tobacco smoking among students.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study of the effect of tobacco smoking on academic performance among students of college of education ekiadolor is of much significance and not only to the students of colleges of education ekiadolor students but also can be applicable to other students in other higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. The importance of carrying out this study is that it could serve as a reading test to many who meant to gain deeper knowledge about causes, effects and method or ways that can be employed to control the uptake of tobacco by students in higher institution of learning. This study will encourage both the federal, state and local government to establish tobacco rehabilitation centres though the ministry of health via drug inspection unit (DIC).
Above all, the study will offer very useful suggestion on the ways that can be used by parents, lecturers and government to curb tobacco smoking among students.
1.5 Research Questions
- Tobacco smoking can lead to metal disorder which affects academic performance of students.
- Peer pressure lead to involvement or uptake of tobacco among students.
- Poverty and family background led to tobacco smoking by student.
- Society and social problems encourage tobacco smoking among student.
1.6 Scope of Study
This study is carried out in College of Education Ekiadolor in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. As a matter of fact, the researcher intends to deal extensively with this study because of its importance in assurance of development of the society through the well development of a well balance students that are emotionally, physically and psychological balanced.
1.7 Definition of Terms
A poisonous substance in tobacco that causes tobacco addiction.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter comprises of summary, conclusions and recommendations of Tobaccosmoking among students in schools.
5.2 Summary of the Study
The purpose of the study was to establish the causes and effects of Tobaccosmoking among secondary school students in Ekiadolor metropolis,. The study was guided by the following research objectives: –
- To establish the extent to which parent’s sources of income influence the prevalence of Tobaccosmoking among secondary school students in Ekiadolor metropolis.
- To determine how different location of schools influence the prevalence of Tobaccosmoking among secondary school students in Ekiadolor metropolis.
- To establish the extent to which school administration influence the prevalence of Tobaccosmoking among secondary and students in Ekiadolor metropolis.
- To establish how peer pressure influences Tobaccosmoking among secondary school students in Ekiadolor metropolis.
- To make recommendations on how Tobaccosmoking can be minimized.
The study utilized questionnaires to collect data. Data was collected from sampled secondary school students, guidance and counselling teachers and principals.
5.3 Summary of the major findings
5.3.1. On how parent’s sources of income influence the prevalence of Tobaccosmoking among secondary school students.
It was established that students whose parents are of low income group are most likely to engage in Tobaccosmoking due to poor social economic background. Such students tend to seek comfort from their friends and other members engaged in Tobaccosmoking for their own survival.
5.3.2 On how location of schools influence the prevalence of Tobaccosmoking.
It was established that students who were in urban areas were likely to engage more in Tobaccosmoking than those in rural areas. This was due to more access social media and availability of drugs especially in big towns.
5.3.3. On the Extent to Which School Administration Influences the Prevalence of Tobaccosmoking.
It was established to a certain extent that in service training on guidance and counselling played a significant role in minimizing Tobaccosmoking.
5.3.4 How Peer Pressure Influence Tobaccosmoking among Secondary School Students.
Peer pressure was cited at the major cause of Tobaccosmoking. Other factors mentioned included curiosity, availability of drugs and the belief among students that drugs are a gateway to passing of exams.
The study concludes that Drug and Substances Abuse is a complex phenomenon in secondary schools. Therefore, there is need for more students to explore deeper on this pertinent issue. This calls for concerted efforts by all stakeholders (including teachers, parents, educational officers and other government officials) to fight the vice and make schools a better place for current generations and generations to come.
There is crucial need to address drug related problems affecting learners among all the stakeholders. Therefore, the ministry of education in conjunction with National Campaign against Tobaccosmoking (NACADA) should review curriculum with the aim of inculcating more values among the youth.
The school administrators should develop, implement and regularly review, in consultation with the school community and governing council, a school behavioural code which is consistent with the Tobaccosmoking policies.
Opportunities should also be provided for staff training and development especially on guidance and counselling.
Teachers should develop and foster positive relationships with students and families. They should also participate in developing, implementing and reviewing the schools procedures for managing Tobaccosmoking related cases.
Parents and guardians should ensure that they are close to their children as much as possible and notify school staff of behaviour change in these children. They should inform school of health issues and any other matter of relevance.
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