The Effect Of Terrorism In Developing Countries; It’s Significance To Development And Progress (Nigeria As A Case)

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The Effect Of Terrorism In Developing Countries; It’s Significance To Development And Progress (Nigeria As A Case)


Abstract


This study was on The Effect Of Terrorism In Developing Countries: It’s Significance To Development And Progress (A CASE OF NIGERIA). The total population for the study is 200 residents of selected local government in Borno. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made village heads, students, youths and married men were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Research hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The world known September, 11th 2001 that left 3,249 dead and 869 wounded, in the United States of America brought the attention of the academia research on terrorism alive. Over the years, the impact of terrorism has been felt all over the world; it has evolved from being just a US ‗problem‘ to a global ‗problem‘. Today, terrorism is a global threat. This has influenced academic research to be done in Africa. There has been a tremendous research on this issue to be specific, how terrorism has impacted Nigeria‘s foreign direct investment. This research is focused on understanding the impact of terrorism in developing countries: it’s significance to development and progress, how terrorism has affected economies in Africa and Nigeria economy on focus.

Terrorism is the use of violent action in order to achieve political aims or to force government to act (Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary). It can also be seen as using violent or threat to obtain a political objective. Terrorism has become a hydra headed monster characterized by unprecedented and unpredictable threats, both domestically and internationally and has kept governments of developed and developing countries on their toes. It has become one of the most complex and complicated phenomenon of the contemporary world (Stibli, 2010). The current wave of terrorism now poses a greater threat than ever before. It has caused sufficient harm to society in areas of loss of lives and property, economic loss by diverting foreign direct investment (FDI) from target countries to other non-target countries; crowd out government resources meant for development purposes by government channeling a large part of its revenue into security vote.

Nigeria society is getting more and more insecure, more people are getting into various forms of crimes and terrorism and they are getting more desperate, ruthless, and sophisticated. Since the independence, the act of terrorist activity have ranged from the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) group, Oodua People Congress (OPC) group, Movement for Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) group, Maitatsine group amongst others. In Nigeria today, new forms of violent crimes have been common. These include, kidnapping for ransom, pipeline vandalization, ritual killings, armed robbery and ethnic clashes (Ezeah and Osayi, 2014; Robinson, Obayori and Kingsley, 2014). According to Ezeah and Osayi (2014), one of the hottest insecurity in Nigeria is Boko Haram, a terrorist sect whose overt and covert activities has threatened the foundation of the country. Similar to this is the activities ofherdsmen’s, which threatened the unity of Nigeria. Thus, the activities of both Boko Haram and herdsmen presently make Nigerians live their lives in fear without knowing when Boko Haram suicide bombers and the secret killings of herdsmen will come their way. The ease and degree with which suicide bombers and herdsmen carry out their act shows that Nigeria government is not on top of the matter in term of security to stop the reoccurrence of these dreadful attacks. For instance the recent adoption of one hundred and ten female students in Dapchi government girl’s secondary school in Borno state by Boko Haram and the killing of seventy three people in Benue state in one day by herdsmen are clear cases that the Nigerian government is not doing enough in term of security to stop these attacks. Also, the security agents in Nigeria compromise security of lives and properties of her citizenry. This scenario plays out in most other organized terrorist related crimes such as banks robberies and kidnappings (Ezeah and Osayi, 2014). Similarly, Onuoha (2011) opined that due to act of terrorism, over 3,500 people were internally displaced, more than 1,264 children orphaned, 392 women widowed, properties such as church and school buildings burnt down in the aftermath revolt of Boko Haram in Borno state as far back as the year 2009.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Nigeria terrorism and security challenges have strengthened their operations and become an increasing threat to the national security of Nigeria, obviously there is no better time to dwell on this issue than now that Nigeria is facing serious domestic security challenges. Thus, a growing number of academic publications have been produced concerning these challenges. This paper seeks to examine the challenges of security and terrorism in Nigeria and ways of containing their siege on the polity. The remaining parts of this study is discussed, conceptual issues, causes of insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria, consequences of insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the effect on terrorism on national unity
  2. To examine the causes of terrorism in Nigeria
  3. To ascertain the effect of terrorism on national security
  4. To examine the way forward of terrorism in Nigeria

1.4 Research Question

  1. Does terrorism affect the economic development of Nigeria?
  2. Does terrorism affect the socioeconomic development of Nigeria?
  3. Does terrorism affect the national unity?
  4. Does terrorism affect the national security?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  • Ho1: there is effect on terrorism on national unity.
  • Ho2: there is effect of terrorism on national security

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will give a clear insight on the effect of terrorism in developing countries: it’s significance to development and progress (A Case Of Nigeria). The study will be very significant to student and the government of Nigeria. The study will provide a lasting solution to the challenge of insecurity in Nigeria. The study will also serve as reference to other researcher that will embark on the related topic


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers The Effect Of Terrorism In Developing Countries: It’s Significance To Development And Progress (a Case Of Nigeria). The study will focus on the activities of Boko Haram in Northern Nigerian. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Finance:

This project work involves huge financial expenses such as photocopy, typing and movement from one point to another to gather information. The financial problems not only hindered movement but also discourse one’s enthusiasm in learning


1.7 Definition of Terms

Terrorism:

The unlawful use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims.

Security:

Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm caused by others. Beneficiaries of security may be of persons and social groups, objects and institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change.


Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

From the foregoing, it can be understood that just like other terrorists or insurgent groups that came before Boko Haram, the menace of Boko Haram to national security is very alarming. The ugly security situation in this country provided a safe haven for Boko Haram to operate for a very long time. And from their mission statement, they have asserted that any resistance in achieving the goal of Islamizing Nigeria would be met with serious confrontational attack. Just like other Islamic sects mentioned earlier, Boko Haram insurgency is sending shock waves to the entire Nigeria in the North East and beyond.With the awareness created through several media networks, the tireless effort of the Nigerian military in spite of all odds would go a long way in curtailing the obnoxious and nefarious activities of this monstrous group to an end some day. We pray their commitment will meet with success.

The study further revealed that the Boko Haram insurgency has negative impact on the human security of the Nigerian citizens. It is therefore evident that as Boko Haram insurgency has claimed lots of lives, aggravated the food and nutrition insecurity, further damaged to health and education sector, and has caused general fear and anxiety; an urgent solution is needed. Boko Haram insurgency is therefore a threat to human security in Nigeria.


5.2 Recommendations

Hassan (2014) stresses that establishing security for the people is the first step to counterinsurgency; hence, “this goes to show that no nation is secured which does not guarantee the security of its citizens” (Danjibo, 2012:487). In essence

  1. Even though the advent of Boko Haram is not a welcome development, our military is encouraged never to rest on their oars when it comes to the issue of national security.
  2. The leadership of this country should learn how to be committed seriously in tackling the issue of security without seeing it as an avenue for politicking.
  3. It is recommended that our porous borders that have proved to be a hide out for all these insurgents should be under strict control by the agencies concerned.
  4. The issue that brought about the emergence of this dangerous sect should be examined properly by the government so that we don‘t have a repeat of such in the nearest future.

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