Effect Of Temperature On The Yield Of Shea Butter In An Unbaffled Vessel At Selected Kneading Period

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry

Effect Of Temperature On The Yield Of Shea Butter In An Unbaffled Vessel At Selected Kneading Period


Shea butter has been a traditional heritage of Africa from time immemorial. It is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well as for domestic use in cooking. The traditional method of shea butter production in Nigeria is based on the use of Shea paste in an unbaffled vessel. This research investigates the effect of temperature at selected kneading periods on the yield of hera butter produced from shea paste. The optimum temperature was calculated for each function to be 14.83oC, 10.45oC and 35oC. The significance of this research is the multiplier effect and the potential to improve on the processing and thus yield of She nut.

Chapter One


1.1 Background

Shea butter has been a traditional heritage of Africa from time immemorial. The triglyceride which contains a high amount of vitamin A, E, F and some other valuable nutrients is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well as for domestic use in cooking. Nigeria (as well as many other West African countries) is blessed with abundance of the shea tree (from which the shea butter is obtained). Due to increasing demand for this product, especially in the cosmetic industries across the globe, there is a need for process optimization where a high yield of shea butter of good grade can be obtained with little energy input.

There are basically three methods of obtaining shea butter from shea nut:

  • Solvent Extraction Method
  • Use of Mechanical Expeller
  • Traditional Method

Solvent extraction makes use chemical solvent such as hexane to absorb the oil from the nut. The oil and the solvent are then separated in another column.

In the mechanical expeller process, an expeller is force driven into the nut contained in a tight container. As the expeller presses against the nut in a screw manner, the oil are forced out and collected at the end.

The traditional method (in southwest Nigeria for example) typically involves crushing of the nuts (after the outer flesh of the fruit has been removed) with mortar and pestle. The crushed nuts are then roasted in a large pot over an open fire (burning of fire wood). They are then ground and well mixed to form a thick paste. The paste formed is kneaded by hand and leg in a large container and with constant addition of water, the butter oil are separated, melted in another pot and cooled.

Of these three methods, the traditional process gives the best quality shea butter and it is by far the most preferred in the most industry. However, this process requires a lot of rigorous exercises. According to Bonkoungou in 2005 for example, it would take one person 20 to 30 hours to produce 1kg of shea butter. Also the level of personal and professional hygiene observed by the local producers may render the locally made shea butter unfit for use in areas such as pharmaceutical and chocolate industry. For example, in a research by Ademola, Oyesola and Osewa of the Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan conducted on 120 local producers of shea butter from different Local Governments Areas in Oyo state Nigeria, 95.8% of them do not actually wash the fruit before use.

Although the mechanical expeller process may be preferred in terms of energy saving, but it yields a denatured shea butter which can never compete in terms of quality with the handmade type.

The solvent extraction process gives the highest yield since it is a large scale industrial operation that may be adopted for commercial production. However, it is too expensive as the cost of equipment and operation may be more than the capacity of an individual. Also, the interaction of the solvent with the oil still makes the shea butter formed be of lower quality than the locally made product.

A good and sustainable process therefore must be one which can give high yield of uncontaminated shea butter, retain the essential vitamin content and at the same time less rigorous but economically feasible. One way of achieving all these is by modeling the traditional method. Model equipment could be fabricated using a stirrer or impeller to substitute the hand; thereby increasing the efficiency, reducing contamination by hand without loss of nutrients. In such modeling, a number of experiments must be carried out to know the optimum condition of operation of the model equipment. Several parameters must be tested for so as to obtain the best result; and according to literature, these include: kneading time and temperature, impeller type, shaft speed, eccentricity, etc.

Figure 1.1: Washed and dried shea nuts –  the diagram is in the complete material which you will get before the end of this page

1.2 Aims and Objectives

The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of kneading temperature at selected kneading period on the yield of shea butter produced from shea paste in an unbaffled vessel.

1.3 Scope of Work

This research measures the effect of three parameters on yield – shaft eccentricity, shaft speed and impeller type. While eccentricity tries to determine the best position of the stirrer relative to the center of the vessel, the shaft speeds helps to determine the optimum speed of the stirrer while the impeller type tells something on the nature or type of impeller to use. Other parameters such as kneading time and temperature are not considered here (a complementary work considering these two is being undertaken by another student).

Also, the research measures the effect of these parameters only from the kneading operation, (since this is the most important operation where the actual separation takes place) so that the crushing, roasting and milling operations are done prior to measurement, making work faster. The vessel being considered for kneading is an unbaffled one. This is to avoid deposition of materials inside the vessel which may affect the yield.

In all, this research narrows down to a system where the response can be measured within a short while given different input, thus the use of shea paste in an unbaffled vessel.

1.4 Significance of Work

The significance of this research is the multiplier effect and the potential to improve on the processing and thus yield of Shea nut as well as help solve the problem of low quality of Shea butter produce in Nigeria. Some of these are highlighted as follows:

  1. It would help in determining the best position of the stirrer shaft, as well as shaft speed and impeller type in the vessel.
  2. It would also help in the optimization of the process and therefore better yield.
  3. The quality of the product will improve and give higher profit.
  4. This will also mean more job for more youth since the best method of processing has been known and can now be fully explored on a large scale.
  5. This will ultimately lead to alternative revenue for the nation and less dependence on crude oil.
  6. It would lead to increase in GDP for Nigeria and therefore command respect among the comity of nations.
  7. It would also make the hitherto scarce quality shea butter readily available to all since buyers may not have to travel down to rural communities before obtaining the product.

1.5 Methodology

This research shall proceed by selectively kneading at three different kneading periods and at four range of temperature. Samples of Shea nuts shall be exposed to the same treatment as it is done in the traditional method of Shea butter production – crushing, roasting and milling. The parameters of interest (kneading temperature and periods) shall then be experimented with a fixed mass of shea paste at each run. The shaft speed shall be maintained at 968 rpm and the conical impeller shall be used throughout the experiments in accordance with literature.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusions

By exposing Shea nuts to the same treatment as done in the traditional method of Shea butter production vis a vis crushing, roasting, and milling using the nut crusher, roasting and milling machine respectively, Shea paste of similar quality were obtained and the paste were used in experimenting for optimum yield varying the kneading temperature and periods. A fixed mass of Shea paste (3000g) were used for each experimental run using a conical impeller and shaft speed of 968rpm.

At all kneading period investigated, the plot of yield of Shea butte against kneading temperature follow the same trend: the higher the temperature, the lower the yield and vice versa. The effect of time on this trend reveals that the curve becomes steeper as the kneading period is increased, meaning that more result would be obtained at lower temperature and higher kneading period. This was depicted in figure 4.1 to 4.7.

Using the Microsoft excel curve fitting function, suitable polynomial equations were fitted for each of the curves and the functions were treated as unconstraint univariable optimization problems. Applying the principles of solving optimization problems using the necessary and sufficient conditions, the optimum temperature was calculated for each function to be 14.83oC, 10.45oC, and16.85oC for 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min kneading periods respectively. Operating at lower temperatures (than these optimums) does not lead to higher yield of Shea butter as projected from the curve function. Therefore I conclude thus:

  1. Mass of shea butter obtain increases with decreasing kneading temperature and increasing kneading period
  2. Kneading below the temperature range considered: is practically impossible, mathematically does not give higher yield and also economically unwise

5.2 Recommendations

From the results, analysis and observations, I recommend the following for better results in future experimentations:

  1. The kneading temperature should be varied at closer intervals between 10oC and 15oC so that the actual optimum could be obtained.
  2. Kneading period should also be varied beyond 12 minutes to see whether further increase in period would imply increase in yield or not. This should be investigated to obtain the optimum kneading period and the economical implication of such.
  3. Investigation should also be made as to how much of water to be added during kneading as well as the temperature of the water added.

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