Causes And Effect Of Teenage Sex Among Secondary School Students
The main purpose of this study was to assess the causes and effect of teenage sex among secondary School students in Cross River State. Three specific objectives and research questions guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive research design for the study. The researcher made use of the questionnaire as the instrument for data collection. Data generated for the study was analyzed on an item by item basis using descriptive statistics of mean, frequency, percentages and mean. From the findings on the perception, majority of the respondents agreed that teenage sex lead to impaired mental health (71.9%); that teenage sex is a cause of many other health problems (88.9%); and that teenage sex could result to shame and withdrawal from society or even suicidal attempts (85.5%). Findings on the attitude revealed that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that teenage teenage sex results in limiting a learner’s future and career prospects (87.7%); and that they would force a boy responsible for the teenage sex to care for the girl (69.1%). The effects of teenage sex were shown to include mental subnormality and neurologic problems (82.9%), poor weight gain (87.2%), teenage sex-induced hypertension and anemia (80.9%), Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (71.0%), medical complications from abortions (77.8%), and psychological issues (85%). In conclusion, this study shows that there are gaps in perception and attitudes towards teenage teenage sex. It was recommended that parents and health stakeholders should reappraise and strengthen their obligations towards their children particularly the adolescent/teenage daughters to enable them achieve their full potentials through prevention of teenage pregnancies.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background To The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Historical Overview Of Teenage Sex
- 2.3 Factors Contributing Towards Teenage Sex
- 2.3.1 Myths And Superstitions
- 2.3.2 Social Pressures
- 2.3.3 Poverty
- 2.3.4 Adolescent Sexual Behavior
- 2.3.5 Age Discrepancy
- 2.3.6 Violence And Coercion
- 2.3.7 Childhood Environment
- 2.3.8. The School Environment
- 2.3.9. Drugs And Alcohol
- 2.3.10. The Lack Of Education On Safe Sex
- 2.3.11. The Influence Of The Media
- 2.3.12. Peer Pressure
- 2.4 Major Causes Of Teenage Sex
- 2.5 The Effects Of Sex On Teenagers
- 2.5.1. Physical Effects
- 2.5.2 Inadequate Mothering
- 2.5.3 Social And Psychological Effects
- 2.5.4 Disruption Of Schooling And Socio-Economic Disadvantage
- 2.5.5 Relationship Difficulties
- 2.5.6 Teenage Abortion
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 The Sample
- 3.3 Instrument Of Data Collection
- 3.4 Method Of Data Analysis
4.0 Results And Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background To The Study
The society in which adolescents grow up has an important influence on their development, relationships, adjustments and problems. Teenagers in Nigeria live in a society undergoing rapid technological changes. Children as young as seven years old have their own cell phones. It is estimated that more than one billion people worldwide use the internet. More adolescents are raised by single parents or foster care as a result of the high extramarital birth rate, divorce rate and AIDS. The high rate of drug abuse to teenagers and poverty are the challenges that the youth of Nigeria are facing today (Gouws, Kruger and Burger, 2008:5).
Most teenagers spend a lot of time looking in the mirror or examining body parts in detail, and it does not end there, but also become more interested in that of others. They become more fascinated with basic facts about human reproduction. Gradually they become more interested in sexual experimentation with others. Part of this is motivated by curiosity, part by a desire for sexual stimulation and release, part by a need for love, affection, intimacy, and acceptance from another person (Rice, 1992:367).
There are many reasons that drive teenagers towards sex. Some teenagers do sex just because they want a quick fix to relieve biological drives. But often adolescent sexuality is driven by emotional needs that have nothing to do with sex. These emotional needs include the desire to receive affection, ease loneliness, gain acceptance, confirm masculinity or feminity, booster self-esteem, express anger, or escape from boredom. Sex becomes a means of expressing and satisfying nonsexual needs (Rice, 1992:377)
According to Tips on pregnancy: pregnancy guide (2005:1) teenage is a delicate stage of life when both girls and boys may indulge themselves in certain irresponsible activities and end up being unexpected mothers and the fathers. When parents come to know about their daughter’s pregnancy they general have mixed reactions. They first get extremely angry accusing their daughters for the sense of irresponsibility they have shown. The expectations they had for their dearest suddenly appear to be vague and an almost sheer impossibility. They go on wondering how their child will be able to fulfill the responsibility of parenthood and at the same time seek for respectable and successful careers.
On the other hand, some parents consider themselves responsible for their daughters’ wrongdoings. They consider that there is something missing in their method of upbringing, which has given their daughters an opportunity of degrading their self- esteem. All in all, there are many factors that can lead to teenage pregnancy (Tips on pregnancy: pregnancy guide, 2005:1).
Current studies indicate that teenagers become sexually active in early puberty. During this time, the teenager is faced with various challenges such as the onset of menstruation in girls and wet dreams in boys. Compared to urban areas, the incidence of teenage pregnancy, abortion and childbirth is significantly higher in rural areas. These teenagers become sexually active at an early stage and without using any form of contraceptives (Mlambo, 2005:2; Makiwane 2010:195-196)).
Adolescent pregnancy affects the emotional, social, physical, and economic well-being of the teenage parent and child (Rice, 1992:395). When a pregnant teenager is emotionally disturbed, she ends up taking wrong decisions. Sowetan (2010: 2) stated that a desperate teenage mother abandoned her one-year-old toddler because the child no longer fits into her lifestyle. Another child aged between one and three was discovered in Mayibuye section of Thembisa. The number of abandoned children in Nigeria is steadily increasing. Child Welfare Nigeria recorded 2392 new cases of abandonment over the past year with the majority being black. Current statistics put the figures of abandonment at: Black-1500, coloured-700, Indians-70 to 80 and white-3 (Sowetan, 2010: 2)
Teenage pregnancy among blacks is proportionately higher than any other racial group. In the United States. Black teenagers make up only 15 percent of the adolescent population, yet account for 31 percent of all births to adolescents and 44 percent of all births to unmarried adolescent. (U S Bureau of the Census (1991). This means the issue of teenage pregnancy was a problem long time ago, but it looks like it is deteriorating. As these teenagers do not want to use the reliable means of birth control, the number of premarital pregnancies among 15- to 19- year olds has skyrocketed to over 1 million a year (Rice, 1992:395).
Teenage pregnancy can lead to depression, poor school performance and emotional instability. The teenager develops fear of the unknown with regards to abandonment by a boyfriend or deprivation. A strong relationship between teenager pregnancy and depression can also be assumed. Depression is associated with impaired decision- making, lack of motivation and a low self-esteem. Amongst girls, pregnancy reflects an attitude of passivity and of not caring about what happens in their lives. Some teenagers fall pregnant because they are assertive (Mlambo, 2005: 1).
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Teenage pregnancy is considered to be a disaster by most people. Yet teenage pregnancies are increasing in number each year. Furthermore, teenage pregnancies are occurring at younger and younger ages (Devenish, 1992:180). South Africa and Nigeria has a huge teenage pregnancy problem- one in three girls has had a baby by the age 20 (Irin, 2007:1)
The pregnancy in teenagers at Cross River state is also very high. When the researcher visited several secondary schools, she found out that there are more than ten girls pregnant. What has become the most problem is that those that already have babies, often become pregnant again. Some teenagers fall pregnant two or three times before they complete their secondary education.
The study focus was mainly to establish whether the high rate of teenage sex in the secondary schools is caused by the child support grant or maybe there are other factors that contribute towards it. The study also focuses on the best methods that will stop or minimize the high rate of sex and pregnancy in teenagers
1.3 Research Objectives
The main objective of this study was to assess the causes and effect of teenage sex among secondary School students in Cross River state.
The specific objectives are as follows:
- Finding out the cause behind the teenage sex
- Finding empirical data on causes for the teenage sex.
- Recommendations and guidelines that will help the teenagers of Cross River State.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the causes for teenage sex?
- What factors contribute to early teenage sex?
- Does the child support grant contribute significantly to teenage sex?
- How can teenage sex be stopped or minimised?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
In this study the following hypotheses are postulated:
- That poverty at Cross River State leads to high teenage sex
- That the teenagers think that the child support grant is a lot of money that they can use to raise their children and also spend it on their own needs.
- That the teenagers have poor understanding of the negative effects of early sex.
- That parents and schools do not teach sex education properly to the teenagers.
- The high rate of alcohol and drug abuse in teenagers lead to high teenage sex.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
Young people are far more ‘sexual’ and sexually active than ever before, and a perception has been cultivated that if something isn’t done the age of young people having sex will continue to get lower (Lee, 2002:38). Teenage pregnancy is seen as the result of early sexual activeness.
Teenage sex and pregnancy has become a very serious social problem in Nigeria, and pregnancy under the age of seventeen has been viewed as a catastrophe for individuals, family and society (Greathead, 1998:21). According to Heaven (2001:176) teenage mothers are having more babies compared with a generation ago. Moreover, the younger adolescents are when having their first child, the more likely they are to have another child while still a teenager.
Falling in love, developing crushes and forming romantic relationships are all parts of a sequence which may culminate in sexual intercourse (Moore & Rosenthal, 2006:8). It is frightening that the youth of today do not seem to be afraid of falling pregnant or contracting the HIV Aids virus. It is disturbing to note that though adolescents are having sex earlier and more often, sometimes with multiple partners, they lack the basic knowledge about contraceptives. According to Lots of essays .com (2008:1), as to be found on the internet, says that the number of teenage pregnancies has been alarming for many years, and it seems to be a particular problem in urban and poor areas, though it occurs across all social and demographic lines.
Teenage pregnancy is one of the major contributory factors to population growth. The increase in population in the developing countries represents a major obstacle to the economic development of the country. With nearly half the total population in these countries being below the age of fifteen, the low ratio of workers to non-workers creates what is called a ‘burden of dependency’(Macleod, 1999:9). This study provides findings on the main causes and effect of teenage sex among secondary School students, as well as informs policy makers decision on regulatory frameworks to address the issue in the state.
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations
Teenage sex is an important public health concern that requires parents, government and other relevant agencies to collaborate in the effort to prevent its occurrence. The findings revealed the effects of teenage sex to include increased mental subnormality and neurologic problems, poor weight gain, teenage sex-induced hypertension and anemia, Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), medical complications from abortions, and psychological issues. In conclusion, this study shows that there are gaps in perception and attitudes towards teenage sex. Therefore, it is vital that parents and health stakeholders should reappraise and strengthen their obligations towards their children particularly the adolescent/teenage daughters to enable them achieve their full potentials through prevention of teenage pregnancies.
The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;
- Firstly, health facilities should offer proper counseling and support for pregnant and non-pregnant teenager in their academic performance and in choice making. This should place more emphasis on family planning and appropriate arrangement for sexuality education.
- Second, since teenage teenage sex is one reason females do not realize their full potentials, parents should make use of resources within their disposal to support the girl child to prevent its occurrence. This includes creating a home environment that fosters communication, understanding and support towards their daughters to ensure the inculcation of moral values to prevent negative sexual socialization, thus reduce teenage teenage sex.
- Lastly, sexuality education should be undertaken at both family and formal schools level to create good knowledge of the structure and functions of the girls’ reproductive system across the community.
Causes And Effect Of Teenage Sex Among Secondary School Students
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