Effect Of Teaching Methods On Students’ Performance In Nigeria Education Institutions
The main concern in education sector is how English teaching methods affect students’ performance. This study examined teaching methods on performance of students in English language in public secondary schools (O-level) in Nigeria precisely in Uyo LGA in Akwa ibom state. The study was guided by three specific objectives: To identifying teaching methods used in instruction of English language in public secondary school, to assess students’ perception of the appropriateness of teaching methods used in teaching in public secondary school and to determine the level of relationship between teaching methods and students’ performance in public secondary schools in uyo LGA, Akwa ibom state. The study applied descriptive research designed that incorporated qualitative and quantitative approach. The sample of teachers 78, students 129 and inspectors 9 was surveyed using in-depth interview and questionnaire. Qualitative data was analyzed descriptively using SPSS while thematic analysis was used to analyzed qualitative data. The study findings revealed that most effective teaching methods were demonstration followed by question and answers and then brainstorming, teachers should know the value and impact of different teaching methods and regular training/workshop should be conducted on teaching methods. The study recommended that traditional methods like lecture should not be used. The study also suggested other areas for further research as the same study should be carried in other district before generalization is done and similar research also should be conducted in private schools to know the teaching conditions.
This chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study. It also gives the conceptual framework and definition of key terms.
1.2 Background of the Study
Teaching methods are used to impart knowledge to students they are the means by which the teacher attempts to impart the desired learning or experience (Ndirangu, 2007). The choice of a particular method of teaching by the teacher determined by number of factors which includes the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve availability of teaching and learning resources and the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available, evaluation and follow-up activities and Individual learner differences (Ndirangu, 2007).
The methods used in teaching vary from one country to another, depending on the information or skills that is being taught and also be influenced by the aptitude and enthusiasm of the student. Various studies had been conducted concerning teaching methods, for example Asikhia (2010), found that, qualification of teachers and students’ environment factors do not influence students poor performance but teachers’ methods of teaching influence poor academic performance. Furthermore, the methods of teaching are dictated by the medium of instruction for example, where English is used, the method of instruction has to be more interactive than passive (Pillar and Skilling, 2005). It also argued that classroom teachers urgently need to know more about effective strategies for teaching English learners (Thompson, 2004). The commonly used teaching methods especially in developing countries are teacher centered (Guloba, Wokodola, and Bategeka, 2010), which are viewed to be somewhat ineffective in the impartation of knowledge.
These methods are no longer used in other counties. Problem-life learning as a teaching method is becoming increasing popular in education institutions as a tool to address the inadequacies of tradition teaching methods since its approaches do not encourage student to participate in the learning process (Teo and Wong, 2000). However, more recently there is an argument in education industry to adopt a learner- centered paradigm shift (Ndirangu, 2007), while other schools of thought are advocating participatory methods of teaching (Sajjad, 2011).
Despite these arrays of teaching methods being advocated in literature there is no one universally accepted method. The question still remains is which of these teaching methods contribute to failure or success of students’ performance especially in developing countries like Tanzania where the causes of poor performance in secondary schools is not well understood.
1.3 Statement of the Research Problem
Students’ performance in Tanzanian secondary schools has been poor, and one of the reason cited is the type of methods of learning-teaching used. Education in Tanzania especially in community (ward) secondary schools, the majorities of students have failed or have not shown good performance in the examination results in summative evaluation (Laddu Nuri 2012). Marikina (2003), believes that the falling level of academic performance is attributed to teachers non-use of verbal reinforcement strategy. Several studies have been conducted about teaching methods in secondary schools in many parts of the world on students’ performance, for example in USA (Haas 2002), Pakistan (Sajjad 2011), Nigeria (Barneka 2012), (Asikhia 2010), Uganda (Guloba, Wokadala and Bategeka, 2010) and Kenya (Njoroge et al., 2014). These studies indicated that the type of teaching methods used by teachers have an impact on students’ performance.
Most of the studies conducted in Tanzania concentrated on factors affecting students performance and policy making rather than how teaching methods influence the Students’ performance example (Laddunuri 2012), (Kkairuki, 2009) and (Kat ram, 2007). Another study by Mruma (2013) examined motivation of teachers in Secondary Schools. None of these studies have specifically examined the effect of teaching methods on student performance. This study bridges the gap and it examined effects of teaching methods on students’ performance in Tanzanian education institutions in public secondary schools in Nyamagana district –Mwanza, Tanzania.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
1.4.1 General Objective
The general objective of the study is to examine the effect of teaching methods on student performance in Tanzanian education in public secondary school in Nyamagana District-Mwanza, Tanzania.
1.4.2 Specific Objectives
The specific objectives guided this study were as follows;
- To identify teaching methods used in instruction of science subjects in public
- Secondary schools in Nyamagana District- Mwanza.
- To assess students’ perception of the appropriateness of teaching methods used in teaching in public secondary schools in Nyamagana –District, Mwanza.
- To determine the extent to which teaching methods impact on students’ performance in public secondary schools in Nyamagana District, Mwanza.
1.4.3 Research Questions
The study answered the following questions
- What are teaching methods used in science subjects in public secondary school?
- What are students’ perceptions on the appropriateness of teaching methods use to teach Science subject in public secondary school in Nyamagana district?
- To what extent teaching methods impact on students’ performance in public secondary schools in Nyamagana district?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is worth of academic research on the following grounds:
- First, the study was expected to reveal the impact of teaching methods on students’ performance in secondary schools and contributes to the body of knowledge.
- Second, the study expected to provide a foundation for future researchers on literature for the topic of effects of teaching methods on student performance in science subject in secondary schools.
- Third, the study findings expected to beneficial to policy makers especially the Ministry of education and vocational training to put forward policies that would greatly encourage fair distribution of resources in public institutions if better results are to be obtained.
- Fourth, the findings also expected to benefit teachers of Secondary Schools in Nyamagana district since it gave the ideas of most suitable teaching methods for use in science subjects.
- Finally, the findings of this research expected to add the body of knowledge on teaching methods and also basis for future research.
1.6 Scope and Delimitations
The study was focused on teaching methods used and their effect on students’ performance in public secondary schools in uyo LGA. The targeted population was students taking english language for at least one year. Two other categories are science teachers and school inspectors. Since teaching methods are so many in numbers the study was only concentrated on 7 of them which are citation, brainstorming, discussion, demonstration, lecture, presentation and seminar.
1.7 Definitions of Key Terms
Is defined as a way of carrying actual teaching in the classroom (Ndirangu 2007). Teaching method refers to the variety of ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process (Kimweri 2004).
Are methods which enable learners to be active involve in the learning process either as individual or group (Musuko 2010).
Teacher –centered method of teaching
Is the process of communication where very little or no room for active participation of learners (Kimweri 2004).
Is the degree to which individuals achieve job or organization’s goals with effectiveness and efficiency. (Utah, and Mowo, 2000).
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents conclusion recommendations and suggestion for further research based on collected and analyzed information in chapter four.
This study had three objectives as elaborated under here:
5.2.1 Research Objective One: To Identify Teaching Methods Used in Instruction of English language in Public Secondary Schools in uyo LGA- Akwa ibom state
The study revealed that teaching methods identified by respondents (teachers) as the most used in teaching english language are question and answers, group discussion, presentation, brainstorming, demonstration, seminars and lecture. These methods make students understand and grasp science concepts better. Learner-centered methods are thus emphasized because they provide opportunity to ask for clarification compared to teacher- centered methods such as lecture and use of seminars which place the students at the receiving end.
5.2.2 Research Objective Two: To Assess Students’ Perception of the Appropriateness of Teaching Methods Used in Teaching in Public Secondary Schools in Uyo, Akwa ibom state
The study revealed that a great number of students do not really understand and grasp the subject matter most of the time during instruction when new concepts are introduced. Question and answers, demonstration and group discussion were selected by students as most effective method of understanding new concepts in english language. However it was revealed that the suitable methods of teaching are cultural dependent but science subject teachers should use at least two teaching methods and demonstration method should be one because in science subject’s student learns more and remember better when they physically see an activity being performed by their instructor.
5.2.3 Research Objective Three: To Determine the Extent to which Teaching Methods Impact on Students’ Performance in public secondary schools in uyo LGA, Akwa ibom state
The study revealed that question and answers, group discussion, or combination of these strategies were selected by students as superior methods that prepare them for assessment either in their tests or final examination. The same teaching methods were preferred by students when teachers are introducing new concepts. Thus at least more than one teaching method should be used to make teaching effective.
The study also revealed that there is greater impact on teaching methods and student performance as it demonstrated that teaching methods such as group discussion, question and answer and combination of strategies are excellence ways of teaching which in turn have positive impact on students’ performance. Students often have little expertise in knowing if the method selected by an individual instructor was the best teaching method or just “a method” or simply the method with which the teacher was most comfortable.
This study has demonstrated that types of teaching methods used by teachers have impacts on students’ performance. This agrees with the previous studies of Haas, (2002), Gulobia, Wokadala and Bategeka (2010) and Sajjad, (2011).
Generally, the study revealed that teaching methods which were most effective are demonstration the next is brainstorming followed by question and answers, other methods are group discussion, presentation, lecture and the use of seminar being the least effective. Teacher’s choice of teaching strategy or model to enable effective teaching and learning is affected by context in that, for example, it would be difficult to do ‘role play’ or whole class ‘questioning’ in a noisy workshop within confined space. In brief the type of teaching methods has an impact on students’ performance. Question and answers method has the greatest impact in teaching of english language compared to other teaching methods and this agrees with previous with the study by J-Ping and Collis (1995) in (Faraday, Overton and Cooper, 2011) and contribution to the body of knowledge.
The results of this study revealed several areas of concern the following are recommendations to address each of that concern. First, the findings of the study also revealed that the choice of what teaching method to be used by the instructor depend on flexibility of the teacher. This may led the students fail to grasp the subject matter. The heads of schools should showed on regular basis, find out from students on which methods is helping them to understand and their request the relevant teachers to apply the methods leads to better students’ understanding. That way high students’ performance will be insured.
Second, the study revealed that teachers seem not be aware of value and impact of different teaching methods on students’ performance. This has lead to inappropriate application of ineffective and often outdated teaching methods (such as teacher-centered approach). The heads of schools in confliction with Ministry of Education and Vocational training should regular conduct training/ workshops on teaching methods in both science and art subjects. This will help teachers to appreciate and learn the best teaching practices particularly new teaching methods. It will also help to improve students’ performance and go along a way to meeting new government agenda of Big Results Now (BRN).
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Frequently Asked Questions
Do teachers’ methods of teaching influence students’ academic performance?
Various studies had been conducted concerning teaching methods, for example Asikhia (2010), found that, qualification of teachers and students’ environment factors do not influence students poor performance but teachers’ methods of teaching influence poor academic performance.
Why is the teaching method regarded as more effective?
The teaching method is regarded more effective since it does not centralize the flow of behaviour among students, hence the method is very effective in improving student achievement (Slavin, 1996). approaches.
Does innovative methods of teaching improve learning?
However, according to various researchers use of innovative methods in education will not only improve education but also strengthen learning skills of the learners. In recent times, teaching has been conceived as a process of fundamental change that facilitate knowledge transmission to students (Elvis, 2013).
Is the student-centered method of teaching effective?
Student-centered m ethods to enhance active learning (Greitzer, 2002). Most teachers today apply the student- (Hesson & Shad, 2007).