Effect Of Teaching Aids On Students Academic Performance In Biology (A Case Study Of Selected Secondary Schools In Port Harcourt Rivers State)
This study was designed to examine the effects of teaching aids on students’ academic performance in Biology. The study was carried out in Port Harcourt Rivers State. Three secondary schools in Port Harcourt Rivers State were randomly selected. These include a male school, a female school and a co-educational school in the area. A total number of two hundred (200) students were used altogether for this study. Some (50) of the students were taught biology lesson (physical biology) using improvised Teaching aids (aids).this was referred to as the treatment group. The group taught without the use of teaching aids was used as the conventional group. The effect of gender difference on the academic performance of students in biology was also determined. Both groups were tested on the lesson taught. A pre-test, post-test, and observation techniques were used as instruments for data collection. Both the pre-test and the post-test were written by the treatment groups respectively and conventional.
1.1 Background of the Study
Science is the foundation on which modern day technological breakthrough is hinged. Different authors according to their own understanding have defined Science. Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behaviour of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. In addition, Esu (2004) defined science as a systematic, precise, objective way to study the natural world. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Fape (2007) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application. The major goal of science education is to develop scientifically literate individuals that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions. The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2006) include the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science. In recent times, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2006), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the application of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. Biology is an incredibly fascinating field of study, because it is so fundamental to our world. Biology plays a role in everyone’s lives and touches almost every aspect of our existence in some way. Biological Science Laboratory Apparatus is essential for meeting our basic needs of food, clothing, shelter, health, energy, clean air, water and soil. Biological Science Laboratory Apparatus enrich the quality of life in numerous ways by providing new solutions to problems in health and materials and energy usage. Biology as one of the major sciences is concerned with the composition, structure and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergo during chemical reactions in the human body. The reason is that science can exert a dominant, if not decisive influence on the life of individuals as well as on the developmental effort of a nation. (Emoron, 1958) the universal recognition of the above submission is responsible for the prime position that has been accorded since and in particular, Biology worldwide. If biology is so important to the life of individuals and the nation, then the input into teaching and learning of Biology to enhance greater performance by the students should be of great concern but in the real sense reverse is the case. The Government policy that admission into the universities should be 60% of sciences and applied sciences and 40% arts and social sciences are often times not accomplished because there are not enough students opting for science related courses. Despite the importance of Biology to mankind and the efforts of researchers to improve its teaching and learning using Biological Science Laboratory Apparatus and other teaching aids, the achievement of students in the subject remain low in Nigeria. Among the factors that have been identified as responsible for the observed trend and relevant to this study are laboratory inadequacies.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study and mastery of Biology is a major objective of Nigeria education. The achievement of this objectives requires the concern of both the government and private owners of schools in collaboration with classroom teachers. There is a great need for proper provision and Biology science Laboratory Apparatus in the Teaching of Biology also utilization of instructional materials in order to achieve the objective of the emphasis laid on the importance of biological science laboratory apparatus in the teaching of biology in senior secondary schools at all levels of our educational system. Provision and improvisation of Biology science Laboratory Apparatus and their proper utilization instructional materials (teaching aids) on biology lesson, undoubtedly will improve the teaching and learning outcome of the subject and the learners.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the effect of teaching aids on students academic performance in biology; but for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following objectives;
- To ascertain the effect of teaching aids on students academic performance in Biology.
- To evaluate the impact of teaching aids on the student’s academic performance
- To ascertain the relationship between the use of teaching aid in teaching of biology and the traditional class room approach
- To ascertain the role of government in ensuring the availability of teaching aids in secondary schools
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses are formulated by the researcher;
- H0: there is no significant effect of teaching aids on students academic performance in Biology.
H1: there is a significant effect of teaching aids on student academic performance in Biology
- H02: teaching aids does not have a significant impact on student academic performance.
H2: teaching aids have a significant impact on student academic performance.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will improve the extent to which the government and private owners of secondary schools provide teaching aid and biological science laboratory apparatus for teaching of Biology. The teacher’s efforts at improvisation and utilization of these biological science laboratory apparatus will endear the subject of Biology to students of Biology to students.
It will also help to find out some of the factors that hinder the utilization of biological science laboratory apparatus. The rate at which students record and their performance improved. The society at large will also enjoy the services of well trained and capable users of this all biological science laboratory apparatus. The study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study covers the effect of teaching aids on students academic performance in Biology. In the cause of the study the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
(a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
1.7 Definition of Terms
They are non- human resources which are helpful to the teachers and students for effective learning.
These are materials that can be used to record, store, preserve, transmit or retrieve information for educational purpose.
This is the act of using a particular thing to achieve a particular aim.
Teaching aid is an object (such as a book, picture, or map) or device (such as a dvd or computer) used by a teacher to enhance or enliven classroom instruction audiovisual teaching aids
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of teaching aids on student academic performance in Biology.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges teaching aids on student academic achievement in Biology
From the study on the importance of biological science laboratory apparatus in the teaching of biology in senior secondary schools in River state, it was found that students taught biology using improvised instructional materials performed better than students taught using conventional material; The results suggest that the use of laboratory apparatus in teaching biology in secondary schools aids the students’ achievement in biology. It has become clear that in our secondary schools, the teaching of biology and even other sciences is so much affected by lack of material and human resources in both public and private schools making the quality of some of our secondary school products questionable. If any difference does exist between the public and private schools might be largely due to the high level of monitoring that prevail in private schools.
From the results obtained in the study on the effects of students improvised instructional materials on students’ achievement in Biology, it was found that students taught biology using improvised instructional materials performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in Biology; rural students performed better than urban students in biology; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction effect between mode of method and gender on students’ achievement in biology. This was because at all the levels of gender, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised instructional material; the result suggests ordinal interaction effects between modes of method and location on students’ achievement in Biology; this was because at all the levels of location, the mean scores were higher for student’s improvised instructional material compared to conventional materials with lower mean scores; there was significant difference in the mean score of students taught using students improvised instructional material and those taught using conventional instructional materials;
Haven completed the study; the researcher recommended that the government should as a matter of urgency equip all the schools with standard science laboratories and other material resources. There should also be training and retaining of biology teachers to enable them cope with the challenges of teaching science effectively in this 21st century as part of the millennium development goals strategies (MDGS) and science for all Nigerians. Furthermore, there should be improved welfare packages as a motivating factor for science teachers in the State. Finally, State Ministry of Education officials should carryout regular inspections to assess facilities in the schools as well as encourage the spirit of improvisation as a viable alternative in material/equipment provision in schools.
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