The Effect Of Teacher’s Self Efficacy On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement In Business Studies

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The Effect Of Teacher’s Self Efficacy On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement In Business Studies


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of teacher’s self efficacy on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in business studies using Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between teachers self-efficiency and students academic achievement, determine whether students who were taught by teachers of high and moderate Teachers’ self-efficacy levels had better academic achievement when compared with those students whose teachers exhibited low Teachers’ self-efficacy, and find out the factors influencing teachers self-efficiency in junior secondary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of business studies teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between teachers self-efficiency and students academic achievement. The study also revealed that students who were taught by teachers of high and moderate Teachers’ self-efficacy levels had better academic achievement when compared with those students whose teachers exhibited low Teachers’ self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended that government should increase the efficacy of Business Studies teachers by providing necessary conditions. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The success of a school and the extent it attains educational goals and objectives depend to a large extent on the self-efficacy of teachers. Teacher self-efficacy is the perception teachers have that they can effectively perform the professional tasks such as helping students to learn. With a high teacher selfefficacy, teachers tend to have a positive feeling about teaching and they gain confidence about their teaching abilities. Self-efficacy determines both teachers‟ behaviour and efficacy expectations in the school where they work. This is because teachers are part of the school environment where they contribute to the realization of the organizational goals (Friedman & Kass, 2002).

Self-efficacy determines behaviours and behavioural changes of teachers and also influences thoughts, feelings, attitudes and effort dedicated to teaching (Canrinus, Helms-Lorenz, Beijaard, Buitink & Hofman, 2012). Teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy exert much effort at work and are rational about teaching. Teachers who believe that they affect students learning are more likely to try out different ways of teaching, become organized in relation to teaching and student affairs and remain confident and enthusiastic about teaching. According to Allinder (2014), teachers self-efficacy influences teachers‟ comprehension of their primary roles, increases their planning and organizational skills, improves teacher-student interaction hence making teaching productive. Skaalvik and Skaalvik (2007) and Skaalvik and Skaalvik (2010) stressed that teachers with low self-efficacy were less satisfied with their jobs and would quit jobs soon. This shows that high efficacy is a significant predictor of greater engagement in the school organization (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2007; Ebmeier, 2013).

Some studies were conducted on relationship between teacher and student interaction and concluded that teachers have low expectations with those students who have low socio- economic background. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that further researches may be conducted on relationship between TE and culturally diverted students (Tucker et. al, 2005). Stronge (2007) found that student – teacher relationship not only plays vital role in student learning, but also increases student self-esteem. Therefore, efficient teachers have close relationship with their students (Langer, 2000). Students who have positive relations with teachers perform positively, because such students act upon the advice of their teachers and feel pleasure. Therefore, gown-town relationship is very important in the eyes of quality educational institutions’ stakeholders (Goddard et al., 2004; Labone, 2004; Tucker et al., 2002).

Deemer (2004) further found that efficacious teachers use creative, meaningful and comprehensive instructional strategies. They also encourage others to apply such techniques. Swars (2005) also found that highly efficacious teachers are very skillful in using different and effective teaching strategies. It was also found that teachers of higher efficacy usually used more than one instructional activity within a single method to engage their students properly (Zahorik et al., 2003).

Teachers’ beliefs and students’ achievement are closely related with each other. It was hypothesized that students of those teachers, who have higher beliefs, can attain higher level of academic achievement. Many researches have been done on teachers efficacy with three indicators students’ engagement, classroom management and instructional strategy but this study includes two more indicators as professional links (relationship with colleagues/profession fellows) and command over subject in teachers efficacy scale. So, professional links (relationship with colleagues/profession fellows) and command over subject are new entrants in teachers efficacy scale.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers are important pillars of schools as they impart knowledge to learners and set the situation for effective learning. Teachers also fill a complex set of roles which vary from one society to another and from one educational level to another. To effectively perform such roles, teachers of Business Studies must be prepared, motivated and supported to attain positive attitudes towards their profession so as to feel more confident in performing their tasks (Perlman, 2013). Despite this, Rwanbushaija (2013) observed that Business Studies teachers in Nigeria face a multitude of challenges such as poor motivation, difficult working and living conditions, low and inconsistent salaries among others. Such challenges have compromised the quality of the standards of the teaching profession and have hampered many Business Studies teachers‟ self-efficacy and level of job commitment in secondary schools. As a result of this, teachers are seen demonstrating and exhibiting unprofessional and unethical conducts such as lateness to duty, absenteeism, hostility to students, inability to complete required task on time which are associated with lack of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. Based on these observations, a gap in knowledge therefore exists which this study would fill empirically as the researcher sought to investigate the effect of teacher’s self efficacy on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in business studies.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the effect of teacher’s self efficacy on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in business studies.

Other specific objectives includes:

  1. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between teachers self-efficiency and students academic achievement.
  2. Determine whether students who were taught by teachers of high and moderate Teachers’ self-efficacy levels had better academic achievement when compared with those students whose teachers exhibited low Teachers’ self-efficacy.
  3. Find out the factors influencing teachers self-efficiency in junior secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Is there a significant relationship between teachers self-efficiency and students academic achievement?
  2. Does students who were taught by teachers of high and moderate Teachers’ self-efficacy levels had better academic achievement when compared with those students whose teachers exhibited low Teachers’ self-efficacy?
  3. What are the factors influencing teachers self-efficiency in junior secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There no significant relationship between teacher’s self efficacy and students’ academic achievement in business studies.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between teacher’s self efficacy and students’ academic achievement in business studies.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study would be of immense importance to the government, education planners, school administrators and teachers. It would spur the government to immediately review the conditions that will enhance teachers‟ self-efficacy which have relationship with job commitment. It would educate education planners and school administrators on the need to provide conditions that would enhance the teachers‟ persona development in terms of upgrade in their academic standard. It would also equip teachers on why their self-efficacy has a relationship with job involvement. Finally, the findings and recommendations from this study would be part of the existing body of knowledge and literature that can be cited for further studies.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on the effect of teacher’s self efficacy on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in business studies. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected junior secondary schools in Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Self-efficacy:

A teacher’s judgment of his or her capabilities to bring about desired outcomes of student engagement and learning, even among those students who may be difficult or unmotivated. In this context, self-efficacy means teachers beliefs in their ability to effectively handle the duties, responsibilities, tasks, challenges, and expectations of the teaching profession.

Teacher:

An individual who displays his/her knowledge of a subject and helps guide students’ learning and also takes curriculum and presents it in the most interesting and applicable way. According to this research, a teacher is a person who is paid by the Teachers Service Commission to teach in a school.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of teacher’s self efficacy on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in business studies using Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of teacher’s self efficacy on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in business studies using Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between teachers self-efficiency and students academic achievement, determine whether students who were taught by teachers of high and moderate Teachers’ self-efficacy levels had better academic achievement when compared with those students whose teachers exhibited low Teachers’ self-efficacy, and find out the factors influencing teachers self-efficiency in junior secondary school.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were business studies teachers of some selected junior secondary schools in Egbema Local Government Area of Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is a significant relationship between teachers self-efficiency and students academic achievement.
  2. Students who were taught by teachers of high and moderate Teachers’ self-efficacy levels had better academic achievement when compared with those students whose teachers exhibited low Teachers’ self-efficacy.
  3. The factors influencing teachers self-efficiency in junior secondary school includes: remuneration,working conditions, facilitative leadership, and capacity building.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Government should increase the efficacy of Business Studies teachers by providing necessary conditions.
  2. Business Studies teachers in public secondary schools should be given full job security and better salary rewards for their services rendered.
  3. As education service is fundamental to a country’s development, annual surveys should be planned from the government educational policy makers to highlight not only teacher’s self-efficacy and satisfaction, but also students’ and parents’ satisfaction and school quality.

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