Effect Of The Use Of Sub-Standard Materials On Building Construction (Case Study Of Ministry Of Housing, Lagos State)

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

Effect Of The Use Of Sub-Standard Materials On Building Construction (Case Study Of Ministry Of Housing, Lagos State)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of the use of sub-standard materials on building construction using ministry of housing, Lagos State as a case study. The study was carried out to examine the reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project, evaluate the effect of the use of sub standard material for a building project, find out the relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building, evaluate the measures that can be put in place by the Lagos state ministry of housing to prevent the collapse of a building. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of staffs of ministry of housing, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project includes: insufficient financing, high expectation from awardees of the contract, lack of technical know how, poor budget reviews, corruption and unethical practices by the suppliers. Furthermore, the study revealed that there is a relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building. Therefore, it is recommended that in order to promote the use of quality materials for the construction of residential buildings, stakeholders should engage professionals and refrain from patronizing quacks and workers without professional competence in the science and technology of building and construction materials. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Buildings are shelters specifically created to accommodate people and to stand as storage for their valuable things (Oyenuga, 2010). The materials used for the construction of buildings varies on the type and function of the building. Significant variables such as the design, materials, and resources to be utilized, and expenses amongst others must be taken into considerations while constructing a structure (Adewuyi, 2010). Amid these variables, the quality and level of materials utilized is of significant significance. The quality of structures in Nigeria remains questioned, given the various counts of undesirable and unpleasant manifestations that follow immediately after completion and most times throughout the operating stage. According to Blok and Herwijnen (2001), the service life of a building from a technical viewpoint is the duration in which a structure can function according to the requirements based on its intended use. Langston (2011), flags out variables such as the quality of components of a building (a result of the quality of materials used), design level, work execution level, the environment, users’ maintenance level amongst others as elements that contribute to the service life of a structure. Vanier (1999) contends that the life span of a structure is a complicated phrase with multiple connotations, varying from simply “time of existence” to “period of use”. However, the author stressed that the technical longevity of a structure greatly relies on the materials utilized. From the metrics established above, it can be determined that a building’s service life is the minimal time during which a building can fulfill the user’s needs, expectations, and execute its specified functions before it becomes outdated. Therefore, it may be analyzed and quantified based on the integrity of the constituent components, both from structural and non-structural.

The quality of materials used in creating these components, thus, serves as a factor for functioning. Ugochukwu, Ogbuagu, and Okechukwu (2014) recognized building materials as one of the principal elements impacting the successful performance of the Nigerian construction sector. It is a big contribution since the quality of building materials impact the quality of building construction projects. Thus, a reduction in the quality of these materials presents a considerable hazard not only to the service life of buildings but also to human lives, properties and the economy at large. Substandard construction materials are materials that do not fulfill quality requirements and lead to unwanted repercussions on the life of a structure. The use of inferior materials and poor craftsmanship account for roughly 52 percent of architectural faults that appear during the post-occupancy period of a project, particularly in residential buildings. Furthermore, Ajufoh et al. (2014) suggest that the usage of inferior construction materials has a 10 percent causal influence on the collapse of structures. Many structures in Nigeria, particularly in Lagos, are constructed using poor construction materials. Adewuyi (2010) believe that many contractors are greedy as they favor vendors and suppliers of poor construction materials with the purpose to benefit from such conduct. This is obvious in the prevalence of flaws in many of the recently finished structures as well as the high rate in the occurrence of building collapse within the state. Adewuyi (2010) say that 60 percent of building collapses in Nigeria occur in Lagos, ascribing the usage of inferior materials and poor craftsmanship by quacks as being responsible for the bulk of the building fall. In addition, Omenihu, Onundi, and Alkali (2016) claim that the use of poor materials for the construction of structures accounts for 13.2 percent contribution to the collapse of buildings being second to structural failure with 24.9 percent contribution. Akande, Akinjobi, Alao, and Akinrogunde (2016) indicate that poor materials, notably reinforcing rods, steel sections and cement contribute substantially to the collapse of structures with up to 18.4 percent involvement.

The non-structural consequences exhibit that the use of improper and poor construction materials frequently lead to flaws in building without reaching the structure’s service life. AlSadey, Omran, and Kadir Pakir (2010) highlighted several typical difficulties stemming from construction faults in houses are related with inferior construction techniques, bad building materials, and improper craftsmanship, amongst others. In the case study of faults in selected buildings by Kumar (2017), it was found that problems attributed to the use of poor construction materials include spalling, column fractures, the disintegration of concrete from columns and corrosion of reinforcing bars. There are government institutions such as the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) that is accountable to control the quality of materials used for building activities. But, the reality indicates that these authorities are not as efficient in executing their job of monitoring and enforcing standards (Kabir, 2015). (Kabir, 2015). This issue occurs owing to the spread of poor materials in the construction industry and contributes considerably to the construction of half-lived and substandard structures. Ameh, Odusami, and Achi (2007) agreed that corruption and other unethical acts are pervasive in the construction business. A plausible argument would be that unscrupulous manufacturers and suppliers inserting themselves into the supply chain and importing inferior building materials disseminate the sources of these materials. Despite the spread of substandard materials in the building industry of Lagos State and Nigeria at large, earlier research largely focused on the effects of employing substandard materials. Whereas, research exploring the variables affecting the utilization of inferior materials for building construction operations remain sparse. Furthermore, many of the prior research on substandard materials explored the effect of substandard materials on building collapse and not on the reasons that motivate construction stakeholders to acquire and utilize poor materials for building construction projects. Therefore, this research intends to analyzes the influence of the usage of sub-standard materials on building construction


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of materials in construction work is very crucial because from research, materials compromise appears to have contributed greatly to collapse of buildings than any other variables. Construction Materials are highly necessary and should be seriously looked at so that they might be sustainable to meet present wants and without compromising on the future and yet be able to fulfill the aforementioned future need. The two basic groups of materials are Natural and Man-Made (Ajufoh et al. 2014) . However the usage of sub standard materials has led to the collapse of numerous buildings consequently leading to loss of lives, assets and money. Furthermore there are some factors which leads to contractors using sub standard materials which are but not limited to insufficient financing on the part of the contractor, high expectation from awardees of the contract, technical know how, in the sense that many building contractors employ the services of an unqualified skilled men and poor budget reviews. It is against this backdrop that the usage of sub-standard materials in building construction will be looked at.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study is as follows

  1. To examine the reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project.
  2. To evaluate the effect of the use of sub standard material for a building project.
  3. To find out the relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building
  4. To evaluate the measures that can be put in place by the Lagos state ministry of housing to prevent the collapse of a building.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for this study

  1. What are the reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project?
  2. What are the effect of the use of sub standard material for a building project?
  3. Is there a relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building?
  4. What measures can be put in place by the Lagos state ministry of housing to prevent the collapse of a building?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: The use of sub standard material has no negative effect on a building project.

Ha: The use of sub standard material has a negative effect on a building project.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study examines the use of sub-standard materials on building construction.

The study will be significant to the Lagos state government as it will make them see reasons why they should enforce strict laws and also implement them before the commencement of a building project

This study will be beneficial to construction companies as they will see the need not to use sub standard material for a building construction because of its massive effect.

This study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to existing literature.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the use of sub-standard materials on building construction. The study will examine the reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project. The study will further evaluate the effect of the use of sub standard material for a building project. Furthermore the study will find out the relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building. Lastly, the study will evaluate the measures that can be put in place by the Lagos state ministry of housing to prevent the collapse of a building. Hence this study is delimited to the Ministry of Housing, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data.

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.9 Definition of Terms

Sub Standard Material:

A sub-standard service or product is unacceptable because it is below a required standard.

Building Construction:

Any physical activity on the site involved in the erection of a structure, cladding, external finish, form work, fixture, fitting of service installation and the unloading of plant, machinery, materials or the like.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of the use of sub-standard materials on building construction using ministry of housing, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of the use of sub-standard materials on building construction using ministry of housing, Lagos State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at to examine the reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project, evaluate the effect of the use of sub standard material for a building project, find out the relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building, evaluate the measures that can be put in place by the Lagos state ministry of housing to prevent the collapse of a building.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are staffs of ministry of housing, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The reason for the use of sub standard material on a building project includes: insufficient financing, high expectation from awardees of the contract, lack of technical know how, poor budget reviews, corruption and unethical practices by the suppliers.
  2. The effect of the use of sub standard material for a building project includes; depletion of the building quality, building crack, building collapse.
  3. There is a relationship between construction stakeholders and the firmness of a building.
  4. Measures can be put in place by the Lagos state ministry of housing to prevent the collapse of a building includes: adequately monitoring the imported building materials, exclusive supervision of building activities in the state, issuing license to qualified contractors, enforcing accountability by all licensed contractors.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. In order to promote the use of quality materials for the construction of residential buildings, stakeholders should engage professionals and refrain from patronising quacks and workers without professional competence in the science and technology of building and construction materials.
  2. Proper supervision should be carried out on work processes over the life cycle of building construction projects to ensure proper materials are used, and in line with project specifications.
  3. There should be advocacy on the benefits of using standard and quality materials.
  4. Professionals in the built environment should develop an honest and good ethical culture, maintain their integrity, work in accordance with standard practise and refrain from corrupt practices in order to prevent the proliferation of the menace.
  5. Regulatory agencies such as the Standard Organization of Nigeria [SON] should be vigilant, prevent importation or local production of substandard materials and suggest with fail-proof and effective means of enforcing compliance to the use of quality materials.
  6. The construction industry in Nigeria should collaborate with government agencies to develop guidelines for preparing a waste management plan for the construction industry and ensure that top management adopts the culture of training and developing their staff about new managerial tools and techniques for site materials management.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are your rights when a builder uses substandard materials?

Your rights when a builder utilizes a substandard material in a construction project will vary depending upon the agreement you have with the contractor as well as depending upon the impact that occurs as a result of the contractor’s choice of materials.

Can a construction contractor be sued for using substandard materials?

If a construction contract does not specifically detail the types or nature of materials that must be used in a finished project, this does not mean that the contractor cannot still be sued for using substandard material.

Which of the following are the main building construction materials?

Cement, sand, aggregates, steel, wood, bricks etc. are the main building construction materials. In developing countries, the major cause of building collapse is the use of inferior materials and application of wrong and sub-standard building materials and its substandard specifications.

Can substitutes affect the outcome of a construction project?

One of the key issues that can occur which impacts the outcome of a finished construction project is when a contractor substitutes in a different – and often lower quality – material. 

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