The Effect Of Stress On Workers Productivity
Impact of occupational stress on worker productivity has been recognized as an important area of concern for organizations. Negative stress affects the physical and mental health of the workers that in turn affects their productivity on job. Research into the relationship between stress and job productivity has been neglected in the occupational stress literature (Jex, 1998). It is therefore significant to understand different Occupational Stress Inducers (OSI) on one hand and their impact on different aspects of job productivity on the other. The study was carried out in Edwin and Emmanuel table water Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Descriptive method was used to carry out the research, where questionnaires were administered to 80% of a total population of 100 people. This study revealed the positive effect of stress on worker productivity, because stress can cause worker effect on health of an individual and might not let worker be able to contribute fully to work because of weakness in the body and might cause serious health problem because of loss rest. The study also recommended that worker should have control over their work, can reduces stress and enhance motivation and growth to several finding.
1.1 Background of the Study
It has been acknowledged that job stress plays a role in employee performance. This nation has its root in what is called attention theory. Simply put attention theory asserts that the experience of stress has the effect of reducing on individual ability to concentrate on multiple tasks. Anyone who has worked feverishly to meet a deadline understands this relationship intimately. It has been “standard fare” in basic management training to point out that there exist some optimal level of stress below which employees are unmotivated and above which they are over whelmed. Unfortunately managers who attempt to find an optimal stress level for their work group frequently find their effort inconsistent result or downright negative results.
Stress is a universal element and persons from nearly every work of life have to face stress. The universality of stress is such that it is experienced by employees all round the globe and has become a major problem facing employers, particularly in developing nation where the employers do not realize the impacts of stress on employee productivity.
The work place stress is indeed a costly epidemic, Rebecca Maxan in her article published by FDU magazines in 1999 noted that three out of every four American workers described their work as stressful and the problem is not limited to those shores, in fact occupational stress has been defined as a “global epidemic” by the united nations international labor organization.
Stress is a factor in every one’s life. Particularly during major events such as marriage divorced or buying a home. But according to the Holmes-Rachs life event scale, which rates the level of stress caused by such event, many of the most stressful events are related to the work place firing business re adjustments, change in financial status line of work, trouble with the boss, varieties in work hours or conditions retirement and vacations.
Surprisingly, stress is not always a bad thing. It can stimulate creativity and productivity. According to Robert Osterman, professor of psychology at FDUS Tecnneck-Hackensack campus, “No one reaches peak performance without being stressed whether an athlete, an office worker or a manager” the natural pattern of human behavior is to experience a stress-causing tension and then return to a normal realized state. The problem occurs when stress is so over whelming or constant that this pattern is broken and that is to say that stress leads to old age. An internationally applicable measure of occupation stress develop by Osterman, named SWS for Situation (s) work (w) and self (s), encompasses all three dimension because Osterman says survey that only look at work factors are not giving the full picture” for factory workers, stress such as dealing with dangerous heavy equipment or working in an uncomfortable environment in contrast office workers are more likely to experience stress that is related to interpersonal relationship on job “people pressures” such as under supervision, tension among team members and fear aversion of conflict can cause stress “for many people, the core of their social life is the people with whom they work with” explains Ostermam” but work is not a socio situation to good relationship such as rumors and power play among executive who are comparing for the next promotion”.
Occupational stress is not related only to what goes on at work conflicts between the demands of the work place and of home life are increasingly common. According to a survey completed for the US department of labor, ten percent (10%) of people who are married or living with children less than 18 years experience several work-family conflicts and an additional twenty five percent (25%) report moderate levels of conflict. Definitely, every problem has a corresponding solution, hence some techniques can be implemented to prevent or reduce excessive stress. These techniques and their implementation constitute the process involved in stress managements.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There has been increasing amount of talk about “employees stress” over the decades. Despite the availability of other companies within the environment of Afikpo North Local Government Area, the employees or the workers experiences allot of stress on workers’ productivity in an organization or firm. This research is aimed at understanding and bringing out an encompassing view of stress and its relationship with employees performance (productivity). The researcher thus will give an over view of work stress, productivity and their inter-relationship in an organization. Hence, the effects of stress on workers’ productivity. Lawal (2006:10) this is the type that leads to anxiety depression, frustration, fatigue and low self-esteem.
Behavioral effects: This is the type that leads to accident proneness, substance abuse impaired speech, restlessness and forgetfulness. Cognitive effect: this is the type of stress effects that affects our through process lead to difficulty or fear of meaning discussion forgetfulness hypersensitivity mental blocks and difficult concentrating and thinking clearly and this may be intensified by substance abuse.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Based on the foregoing, it is worthwhile to conduct a research of this nature to reveal specific fact about occupational stress in Nigeria working environment.
The specific objectives of the study can be stated as follows.
- To know whether there is any effects of occupational stress on workers’ productivity in Edwin and Emmanuel table water Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
- To examine the nature of occupational stress in Nigeria sector.
- To ascertain the strategies for dealing with occupational stress among Nigeria worker.
- To investigate the factors that are responsible for occupational stress in Edwin and Emmanuel table water Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
1.4 Research Question
This research questions that would guide this study are stated below:
- What are the effects of occupational stress on workers’ productivity in Edwin and Emmanuel table water Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
- What is the nature of occupational stress in Nigeria sector?
- What are the strategies for dealing with occupational stress among Nigeria worker?
- What are the factors that are responsible for occupational stress in Edwin and Emmanuel table water Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State?
1.4 Formulation of Hypothesis
- Ho – Occupational stress does not have effects on workers’ productivity
Hi – Occupational stress has effects on workers’ productivity
- Ho – There is no strategies for dealing with occupational stress in Nigeria
Hi – There is strategies for dealing with occupational stress in Nigeria
1.5 Significance of the Study
The desire of every employer is optimum productivity.
This can only be achieved when the workers work at their best. But one major factor that has been identified in the literature to affect the productivity of workers is occupational stress.
Therefore, the employers and/or management cannot ignore the influence of occupational stress in attaining the organization set goals. The focus of this study is to understand how occupational stress affects workers productivity and also to identify the factors that are responsible for occupational stress, with the knowledge it may be possible to “adjust” these factors in order to improve the productivity of the workers as well as that of the organization.
The application of the finding of this study is mainly for the design and implementation of the most effective’s strategies for dealing with occupational stress in Edwin and Emmanuel table water.
However, it is hoped that the key ideas can be transported to any work place wishing to increase or enhance workers productivity.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is an attempt to provide employers and workers with a frame work of measure which will identify and prevent problem of occupational stress and help to manage them when they do arise, although stress is associated with a number of factors, the scope of this study will be limited to only work related stress. Furthermore, effect of occupational stress on workers’ productivity using Edwin and Emmanuel table water would be investigated empirically.
This will help to put to rest the controversy surrounding the likely effects of stress on workers productivity.
Occupational stress is a common phenomenon in every occupation, the focus of this research shall be on the Nigerian Industries with special interest Edwin and Emmanuel table water. The selection of this sector faces on daily basic especially in recent times with work force cutbacks which could have resulted in greater pressure on remaining workforces with increased work overload or stress.
The research is intend to be elaborated in order to gather diversified opinion on the subject matter and to allow for precision in the identification job related stressors for every individual respondent.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Definitely the study is not without limitations, the limitations includes the following
Among all, time is the highest possible limitation to the study. The time available for the study was limited the horizon to which the researcher may wish to expend the study. He will confine all his activities within the given time available for the research.
The fact that the researcher is still a student who has no external financial assistance; he was faced with financial challenge. The researcher is still a student and has no external financial support from any institution, this limit the extent he may wish to carry the research as he will not exceed his financial capabilities.
3. Questionnaire Administration:
In the cause of administering the questionnaire, the researcher was not be given adequate attention. This posed a challenge to the efficacy of the study.
4. Level of Literacy of Respondents:
In the area of study, majority of the employees are just SSCE holders, this posed some limitations to the researcher as it limited the questions to the level they can possibly answer.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
A physiological and emotional response to stimulate that which places physical or psychological demands on an individual.
2. Stress Management:
This refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person’s level of stress, especially chronic stress for the purpose of improving functionally on daily basis.
3. Management Techniques:
These are special methods and procedure professionally designed for application to managerial problems by manager in their managerial functions and duties.
This refers to individuals output at a work place.
This refers to an organization output calculates thus total production per total input calculated thus: total production per total input (man, materials, money and machines).
Individual employed to work in an organization or any given business establishment.
These are techniques or procedure that is used as palliatives to any mental emotional or behavioral disorder like those caused by stress.
1.9 Organization of the Study
The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Introduction, Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this chapter the findings of this study were presented, conclusions were made and finally necessary recommendations were made in line with the findings.
5.1 Summary of the Findings
This research case summary has tried to give a succinct definition of stress on worker productivity on job. Stress has been defined as the outcome of facet of the assigned work role that causes harmful effect for individual. Occupation stress is considered as harmful factor of the work environment. It can also be defined as the pattern of reactions that occurs when worker presented with work demands that are not matched to their knowledge, skills or abilities and which challenges their ability to cope.
This also shows the effect and factor’s of stress to worker productivity in the organization and is stated as follows:
- Promotion and transfer to another location
- Formal reprimand by one’s supervisor
- Personal life of workers
Based on the results of the study, it became clear that stress has effect on worker productivity in the organization and also show the implication of stress to worker productivity in organization.
This study reveals the positive effect of stress on worker productivity, because stress can cause worker effect on health of an individual and might not let worker be able to contribute fully to work because of weakness in the body and might cause serious health problem because of loss rest.
In table 4.2.6, decision rule show’s that respondent responds to the hypothesis (Hi) that occupational stress has serious effect on worker productivity when 70% respondent accept the fact that stress affect their productivity and we accepted the (Hi).
- Worker should have control over their work, can reduces stress and enhance motivation and growth to several finding.
- Making sure that worker have the resources and training to do their job well. The process of identifying training needs in an organization for the purpose of improving worker job productivity.
- Simply sharing your thoughts and feelings with another person can help reduce stress. Talking over a problem with someone can be a great way to let off steam and help you become calm and focused.
- As well as increasing social contact at work, having a strong network of supportive friends and family members is extremely important to managing stress in all areas of your life. On the flip side, the more lonely and isolated you are, the greater your vulnerability to stress.
- If you don’t feel that you have anyone to turn to at work or in your free time it’s never too late to build new friendships. Meet new people with common interests by taking a class or by volunteering your time.
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