Effect Of Street Trading On Traffic Performance And Control (A Case Study Of Offa Town)

Project and Seminar Material for Civil and Environmental Engineering

Effect Of Street Trading On Traffic Performance And Control (A Case Study Of Offa Town)


Abstract


The solid base of this project is the effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town particularly, Owode Market and Oloffa Way.

It comprises of five chapters in which each of the chapters analyzed the view of the project.

  • Chapter one deals with the introduction of the project, the causes and the short comings of street trading, the aim and objectives, statement of the problem, justification, scope of the study and description of the study area. Also include in this chapter the methodology, that is, the methods employed to acquired information and data.
  • Chapter two based on the literature review of the project, the causes and effect of obstruction of traffic flow, which is the effect of parking, street trading and delay on traffic performance, the description of the project areas, past effort made on the problem.
  • Chapter three, this deals with the collection of data, the studies of the behavior of the parties involved, that is, the traders, drivers and pedestrians. Also included the opinions gathered through the questionnaires.
  • Chapter four is totally based on the analysis and designs of data collected.
  • Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation suggested for the problems.

Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content
  • List of figures
  • List of tables

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Statement of the problem
  • Aim and objectives
  • Justification
  • Scope
  • Project area description
  • Description of study area
  • Methodology
  • Primary source
  • Secondary source
  • Presentation of report

Chapter Two

Literature

  • Some definition related to traffic engineering
  • Causes of street trading and their short coming
  • Past efforts made on the control of street trading
  • Causes of street trading
  • Short coming of street trading
  • Causes and effects of obstruction of traffic flow
  • Effect of parking on traffic flow
  • Effect of street trading on traffic performance
  • Effect of delay on traffic flow

Chapter Three

Data Collection

  • Questionnaires
  • Drivers’ characteristic and view
  • Pedestrians’ characteristics and views
  • Traffic wardens’ characteristics and views
  • Street traders’ characteristics and views
  • Pedestrians’ movement studies
  • Traffic volume data
  • Speed data
  • Traffic delay data
  • Roadway capacity

Chapter Four

Data Analysis

  • Spot speed analysis
  • Traffic delay analysis
  • Roadway capacity analysis
  • Road width analysis

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix A: Questionnaires for traffic wardens
  • Appendix B: Questionnaires for Pedestrian
  • Appendix C: Questionnaires for Drivers

List of Plate


  • Plate 3.1:-A, B Owode Market Area
  • Plate 3.2:-A, B street trading at Popo road
  • Plate 3.4:-A, B street trading at Oloffa Way
  • Plate 3.5:- A, B Street trading at GTBank Area

List of Table


  • Table 3.1.-3.14: Average Journey Time For Pedestrian
  • Table 3.2.1-3.2.12: Traffic Volume Studies
  • Table 3.3.1-3.3.6: Spot Speed Studies
  • Table 3.4.1-3.4.6: Traffic Delay Studies
  • Table 4.1-4.6: Spot Speed Data Analysis
  • Table 3.5.1-3.5.5: Delay Data Analysis
  • Table 4.1: Road Capacity Analysis
  • Table 4.5.1-4.1.2: Road Width Analysis

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Traffic performance under normal flow is affected by many conditions which include delay, when the traffic is impeded by some external factors, traffic demands on the capacity for the road, weather, Peak and off Peak period factor. +

With these conditions, it is mostly or usually a great problem for a smooth flow of traffic or traffic performance, because delay which is being caused by other vehicles on the road constitutes traffic congestion on its own. So, also is the problem of traffic, because with a bad weather like, hay, rainfall etc. Traffic is bound to be slow and also constituting to traffic congestion. The peak and off peak factor influences traffic flow, usually high at peak periods, because demand increases and becoming normalized at off peak periods, most especially the major roads. There is also, the problem of street trading which contribute to the problems of traffic performance (congestion).
Street trading means selling, exposing or offering for sale of any article on a street.

Also, street trading is an unauthorized act of carrying out trading activities on the open street, display stand, selling or offering of goods or any kind of services whatsoever, operating both sales and market stall that encroached on any public road. According to Cross J., (2000) (052 Glo.Adv. Res.J.Manager. Bus.stud)

“Street” includes any road, footway or other area to which the public has access without payment.

Through street trading, a long established element of the populace was been repressed before, by harassment and prosecution by law enforcement agents, but of recent, it has flourished as it is allowed to operate, which is closely linked or connected to the process of urbanization and the unstable economic situation, used to be in a specified format in the olden days with the traders coming to the urban areas to sell their farm product from the rural areas on stipulated days. But, these days, the traders had established themselves around the key transportation modes and other sides of economics and social activities.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Street trading has impeded easy movement and deteriorates traffic performance. This trading and other activity has led to a drastic reduction in the design width for traffic movement which is causing unprecedented traffic congestion on our roads. Besides this effect, other areas affected were assessed.


1.3 Aim and Objectives

Aim of this project is to explore effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town.

Objectives of this project are:

  1. Inventory of traders and trading in Owode market area of Offa Town, Kwara State.
  2. Inventory of traders and trading along Oloffa Way, Offa, Kwara State
  3. To evaluate the effects of the street traders on traffic movement
  4. To increase the pedestrians safety within the study areas.
  5. Once those above listed aim and objectives can be achieved, there will be ease on traffic performance.

1.4 Justification

The justification of this project is to explore the effect of street trading on traffic performance and finding possible remedies to decrease its effects to barest minimum in Offa Town.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This project studies the effect of street trading on traffic performance: a case study of Offa Town, particularly Owode Market Area and Oloffa Way.

Owode Market, being the point of affected area due to high volume of the traffic coming to the region and influences of traders trading within the axis.


1.6 Description of Study Area

Offa Town is an ancient town and Headquarters of Offa Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. It is the second largest Town in the State, Offa is located in central Nigeria with geographic coordinates of 80 90N 40 43E.


1.7 Methodology

An inventory study of the road user consideration was done during which the effect of street trading was observed. Also the driver, pedestrians and commuter behavior to the problems were observed.

And causes of delay apart from street trading were not over looked, since street trading is not the only cause of traffic congestion.

Data were also collected; such data include the volume of traffic and the speed of vehicles at the areas under the case study.

The method employed can be divided into two categories, these are:


1.8 Primary Source

This consist of the information collected from site during feasibility studies of the areas affected and also, through interview at both locations by interviewing the drivers, traders, commuters and pedestrians. Some data were collected.


1.9 Secondary Source

This comprises of information obtained through the questionnaires distributed among the different parties involved and these included the drivers, pedestrians, traffic whom are the division of the Nigeria police force whom are supposed to be controlling the flows of traffic in the affected areas. The purpose of this is to obtain the opinion of the parties involved and their views on how the problem could be solved. Also included the plate (pictures) of the affected areas


1.10 Presentation of Report

The solid base of this project is the effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town particularly, Owode Market and Olaffa Way.
It comprises of five chapters in which each of the chapters analyzed the view of the project.

  • Chapter one deals with the introduction of the project, the causes and the short comings of street trading, the aim and objectives, statement of the problem, justification, scope of the study and description of the study area. Also include in this chapter the methodology, that is, the methods employed to acquired information and data.
  • Chapter two based on the literature review of the project, the causes and effect of obstruction of traffic flow, which is the effect of parking, street trading and delay on traffic performance, the description of the project areas, past effort made on the problem. The chapter also included the definition of some related term to traffic.
  • Chapter three, this deals with the collection of data, the studies of the behavior of the parties involved, that is, the traders, drivers and pedestrians. Also included the opinions gathered through the questionnaires.
  • Chapter four is totally based on the analysis and designs of data collected.
  • Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation suggested for the problems.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

From the various research works, data collection and analysis carried out in the case study area. It were observed that street trading apart from causing traffic delays at peak hour period, contribute to traffic congestion as well, especially in the evening peak period.

The traders do come to spread their goods beside the road during the evening from 5pm to 9pm making traffic flow around this time a nightmare for the drivers. It was also observed that street commercial drivers park indiscriminately along the road especially along Oloffa Way thereby reducing the capacity of the road.

The Owode Market Area was observed to be affected by these activities as it is central location for terminal facilities due to the proximity of the traveler and railway Station and the loading and off loading of vehicles to the southern parts of the state and most part of the metropolis.

At Offa Polytechnic road, the street trading activities has greater effect on the traffic performance especially during the school session, because of the student population. Student, vehicular population and more traders come out to trade on the street. Most of the traders around this area are not permanent traders who sell goods like Books, printing papers, and general food stuffs. Therefore, they don’t have permanent shop to sell, they prefer selling along the road and hawk some time


5.2 Recommendation

To apprehend the problem of street trading at Owode Market Area and Oloffa Way, the following suggestions are recommended

  1. Since majority of the streets traders are migrants from different areas, so there is need to develop the rural areas because there is high regional inequality in the distribution of resources, facilities and utilities by government. Those found encroaching the road causing traffic congestion should be relocated and the urban managers should embark on serious development control to ensure penalty on defaulters. An orderly pattern of arrangement of commodities should be enforced.
  2. Moveable refuse collection points should be provided at convenience location in the road right of way within the study area for dispose of solid waste this will reduced the problem of waste disposed and improved aesthetic and environmental condition of the areas and the street traders should pay for the waste management.
  3. Government should create employment opportunity that does not require many skill as most of the streets traders did not further their formal education.
  4. And since most of the traders are illiterates the local government council should find means of educating them on the ills of street trading. Some of the traders are teenagers who ought to be in school, since this is seen as child abused, the government should make a strict law which prohibits teenage trading and any parents that disobey the law should be prosecuted.
  5. Fines should be imposed on traders who are involved in street trading activities and the local government task force should prosecute streets traders.
  6. One of the factors responsible for street trading is the devastating economy of the nation. The government should try to provide jobs to those who are jobless, especially those school leavers whom are found as streets traders.

Effect Of Street Trading On Traffic Performance And Control (A Case Study Of Offa Town)


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Effect Of Street Trading On Traffic Performance And Control (A Case Study Of Offa Town)


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