Effect Of Strategic Planning On Organizational Performance (A Case Study Of First Bank Plc)
The study investigated the effects of strategic planning on organizational performance with First Bank of Nigeria Plc Ilorin branch, as a case in hand; the aim is to know whether strategic planning has effect on the overall performance of the organization. The methodology that was used for the study is survey design and the target population was 100 members of staff of First Bank of Nigeria Plc Ilorin while the sample size was 89 which were determined using SPSS. The result of the analysis indicate that there is relationship between effective strategic planning and organizational performance and also that lack of accountability, lack of commitment and lack of understanding of the role in the execution process are challenges in the implementation of strategic planning and therefore recommend among others that Nigerian firms should give more serious attention to strategic planning and finally, employee welfare should also be given adequate attention for efficiency and effectiveness in organization.
1.1 Background of the Study
There is a purpose for existence of every organization whatever their type and composition. As such, its relevance within an environment or a larger society is to accomplish its goals, tasks, mission and function and reach its target. The level at which organization enhances its performance can be determined by the form of management tool adopted. This assertion was supported by the fact that a well coordinated management theory as a tool will help in understanding whether organization can enhance its effectiveness and productivity (Oyedijo, 1998). For enhancing organization performance, a strategic management and policy implementation as one of the key management theories play a major role. From this, the strategic management and policy implementation as tool is important as any other relationship, process or resources within the organization. An organization according to Hodge and Anthony, (1994) can b thought of as a group of two or more people working co-operatively towards a common objective or set of objectives. Schein (1993) also defined organization as the rational coordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goal through division of labour and function, through a hierarchy of authority and responsibilities. The main characteristics that are common to all types of organization are: objectives, task or activity, division of labour, hierarchical structure of authority and responsibility and input/output process.
The responsibility of improving organization performance rests on the type of management. Therefore, strategic management has the potential to drastically increase any organizations competitive position. Strategic decision making significantly affects the organization and often requires widespread changes, (Oyedijo, 1998). Strategic management and policy implementation on organizational effectiveness according to Cole (2000), focuses on the relationship of existing and emerging system and technologies to the manufacturing strategy and function related to operations planning and control. For organization to enhance high level performance, strategic management must be involved with its attendant role of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross functional decisions that enable organization to achieve its goals and objective. Effective strategic decision making, therefore requires ability to understand the dynamic interrelationship of concept and the non-linear nature of complex system and an ability to see the long-term implication of decision critical to enhance organization performance through strategic management. Commonly employed strategy are those which employs a production plan that maintain stable inventory level and the level employs varying the production rate to meet demand. Capacity utilization rates can be optimized when company combines the two capacity strategies (Ansoff, 1988). Crucial to the organization performance through the use of strategic management and numbers of variables. These variables could range from broad range of strategic issues, operational systems, the work force and organizational development. However, there are variations of these challenges from one organization to another. In pursuance to these performances, the organization and the management are challenged by variety of situation in material and human relations. These challenges are part of the variables related to enhancing organization performance and effectiveness prevalent (Lomash and Mishra, 2003). The impact of strategic management and policy implementing on organization effectiveness are relevant to this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Managements‟ lead role requiring strategic thinking, planning, decision-making and ultimate implementation could also have much to contribute to the fortunes or otherwise of the various organizations in their respective industries. Much as the differences in the performance levels of various organizations are to be expected, it is still strongly believed that the strategies pursued by each organization are largely accountable for the outcome of their performances. Strategic planning increases the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations by improving both current and future operations. Strategic planning provides a framework for management’s vision of the future. The process determines how the organization will change to take advantage of new opportunities that help meet the needs of customers and clients. Strategic planning is a difficult process which requires that people think and act creatively. The strategic planning process is used by management to establish objectives, set goals, and schedule activities for achieving those goals and includes a method for measuring progress. These goals can be accomplished through the steps of the strategic plan, beginning with an external and internal analysis, a clearly defined mission statement, goals and objectives, formulation of specific strategies, concluding with the implementation of the strategy and managed control process. In view of the many challenges that business organizations are exposed to, it is imperative for them, both profit and nonprofit organizations, to anticipate challenges, identify their strengths to meet anticipated challenges and take control of available opportunities to obtain maximum productivity. The evaluation of organizational effectiveness has so much centered upon what they can achieve term of profit and competitive advantage. The critical of performance not only reflect a lack of proper misunderstanding and appreciation of the impact of strategic management and policy implementation on organization effectiveness but also suggest profit as the determinant of organization performance. For organization to maintain its steady growth, survival and consolidation, along range decisions and planning has to be taken in all levels (corporate, business, functional and operational).
The dynamism in environment, consumers behavior, diversification concepts, and human cum society perception, require strategic management approach. Unfortunately, in most organizations, strategic plans are not carried out and implemented properly. Some organizations do not attach any importance to strategic planning and therefore do not have strategic plans for their organizations. This could be borne out of lack of appreciation and knowledge of the relevance of strategic planning to organizational growth. Despite the fact that strategic planning has brought far reaching revolution which has tremendously transformed most business landscape, it is still plagued with some constraints in so many organizations. Some of these constraints include wrong application of strategic planning, unethical attitude, poor organizational structure and Non conformity of the rules and standards by the workers of the company towards actualization of the strategic goals. In an attempt to address this unfortunate development, there is the need to critically assess the relevance of strategic planning on organizational productivity to enable management appreciate its worth in gaining competitive advantage at the market place.
The problem of this study is to examine the impact of strategic management and policy implementation on organizational effectiveness.
1.3 Research Questions
- Is there proper awareness of strategic management and policy in Nigerian Company?
- Is there a positive attitude towards the practice of strategic management and policy implementation in Nigerian Company?
- Will there be any influence of organization structure supporting the implementation of strategic management for effective performance?
- Is there any relationship between strategic management and policy implementation on organizational effectiveness in Nigerian Company?
- Strategic planning ensures better decision making in an organization?
- Organizational goals is achieved through strategic planning?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are the effects of strategic planning as an indispensable tool for organization performance other objectives are:
- To determine the important of effective planning as an indispensable tool for better performance of an organization.
- To determine appropriate strategic planning the organization need to adopt or employ in implementing its decision and how these will be affected positively on organization.
- To review the reasons why organization need to plan in order to achieve its aim and objectives.
- To encourage the management on planning as an indisposable tool organization need for their better performance.
- To determine the reason why organization need planning in guiding their activities towards pre-determine goals
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- There will be no significance proper awareness of strategic management and policy implementation in the organization.
- There will be no significant positive attitude towards the practice of strategic management and policy implementation in the organization.
- There will be no significant influence of organization structure to support the implementation of strategic management for effectiveness performance.
- There will be no relationship between strategic management and policy implementation on organizational effectiveness in Nigerian Company?
- There will be no significant influence that Strategic planning will ensures better decision making in an organization.
- There will be no significant influence that through Strategic planning organization goals be achieved.
1.6 Significant of the Study
The research in on the impact of strategic management and policy implementation on organizational effectiveness with the following benefits:
- The study is envisaged in contributing to body of knowledge acquired through this thesis.
- The study will also encourage the management on adopting appropriate planning for the successful of the organization.
- The study will gear up the management towards the enactment of policies and strategic planning that will improve the performance of the organization and its standard.
- The study will also enlighten the management of the organization on the effective implementation of any plan selected for the betterment of the organization.
- This thesis work would give a better understanding of the terms effective planning and highlight its benefits to organization performance.
- This thesis will serve as references to future research involved in similar issue.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study and History of First Bank
Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this thesis focus on the effective of strategic planning on organization performance, with a particular reference to first bank of Nigeria Plc, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria.
This thesis is to examine what extent effective planning have effect on organizational performance.
Limitations of the Study
The limitations of the study are:
- Reluctance of the participants in completing the questionnaire due to some reasons
- Insufficient resources (financial) on the part of the researcher in carrying out a more elaborate study.
History of the Bank
First Bank of Nigeria Limited (“FirstBank”), established in 1894, is the premier Bank in West Africa, Nigeria’s number one bank brand and the leading financial services solutions provider in Nigeria. The Bank was founded by Sir Alfred Jones, a shipping magnate from Liverpool, England. With its head office originally in Liverpool, the Bank commenced business on a modest scale in Lagos, Nigeria under the name, Bank of British West Africa (BBWA). In 1912, the Bank acquired its first competitor, the Bank of Nigeria (previously called Anglo-African Bank) which was established in 1899 by the Royal Niger Company. In 1957, the Bank changed its name from Bank of British West Africa (BBWA) to Bank of West Africa (BWA). In 1966, following its merger with Standard Bank, UK, the Bank adopted the name Standard Bank of West Africa Limited and in 1969 it was incorporated locally as the Standard Bank of Nigeria Limited in line with the Companies Decree of 1968. Changes in the name of the Bank also occurred in 1979 and 1991 to First Bank of Nigeria Limited and First Bank of Nigeria Plc, respectively. In 2012, the Bank changed its name again to First Bank of Nigeria Limited as part of a restructuring resulting in FBN Holdings Plc (“FBN Holdings”), having detached its commercial business from other businesses in the FirstBank Group, in compliance with new regulation by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). First Bank got listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) in March 1971 and has won the NSE’s Annual President’s Merit Award for the best financial report in the banking industry twelve times. First Bank was rated number one among Nigerian banks in Corporate Governance practice in 2003 and 2005 by Johnston Lrving consulting, in collaboration with ICRA pty Limited (an associate of Moody’s Investors, USA). Additional, the bank was awarded the Best Bank in Nigeria’’, Best Trade Finance Bank in Nigeria’’, and Best Foreign Exchange Bank in Nigeria’’ for three (3) consecutive years 2004, 2005 and 2006 by the US-based Global Finance Magazine, to mention a few of the awards won by the Bank. First Bank had 1.3 million shareholders globally, was quoted on The Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE), where it was one of the most capitalized companies and also had an unlisted Global Depository Receipt (GDR) programme, all of which were transferred to its Holding Company, FBN Holdings, in December 2012. Building on of its solid foundation, the Bank has consistently broken new ground in the domestic financial sector for over a century and two decades. As the global operating environment evolves, FirstBank has kept pace, responding to the dynamic needs of its customers, investors, regulators, host communities, employees and other stakeholders. Through a balanced approach to plan execution, FirstBank has consolidated its industry leadership by maintaining trans-generational appeal. Thus, the Bank has continuously boosted its customer-base, which cuts across all segments in terms of size, structure and sectors. Leveraging experience spanning over a century of dependable services, FirstBank has continued to build relationships and alliances with key sectors of the economy that have served as strategic building blocks for the wellbeing, growth and development of the country. With its huge asset base and expansive branch network, as well as continuous re-invention, FirstBank is Nigeria’s strongest banking franchise, maintaining market leadership on all fronts in the nation’s financial services industry. First Bank of Nigeria , sometimes referred to as FirstBank, is Nigerian multinational bank and financial services company headquartered in Lagos .
- It is the biggest bank in Nigeria by total deposits and gross earnings. It operates a network of over 750 business locations across Africa, the United Kingdom and representative offices in Abu Dhabi, Beijing and Johannesburg set up to capture trade-related business between geographies. The bank specialises in retail banking and has the largest retail client base in Nigeria. In 2015, The Asian Banker awarded FirstBank the Best Retail Bank in Nigeria award for the fifth consecutive year.
- The Nigerian banking business operates nationally, with an active customer base of over 10 million, and employs over 7,000 staff. FirstBank operates along four key Strategic Business Units (SBUs) – Retail Banking, Corporate Banking, Commercial Banking and Public Sector Banking. It was previously structured as an operating holding company before the implementation of a non-operating Holding Company structure (FBN Holdings) in 2011/2012. As of December 2015, the Bank had assets totalling NGN3.9 trillion ($12.2B according to 2017 exchange rates).
- The Bank’s profit before tax for the twelve months ending 31 December 2015 was approximately NGN10.2 billion 1`1111 Underpinning this success in the bank’s strategy, with its focus on the two critical imperatives of modernization and growth. The Bank has Nine (9) local subsidiaries and a full-fledged subsidiary in the United Kingdom, as well as a representative office in South Africa. First Bank’s growth strategy is hinged on continued network expansion, product development, mergers and acquisitions, and growth of its international footprint. The Bank in the 2005/2006 financial year, acquired its investment banking subsidiary, FBN (Merchant Bank) Limited and another bank – MBC International Bank Plc. Furthermore, the Bank is currently exploring alliances with key prospects in the industry with a view to creating the largest bank in West Africa and one of the largest on the continent. The business of the Bank is operated along two main market segments/strategic Business Units (SBUs): Corporate Banking, and Regional Directorates (Lagos & West, North and South). FirstBank’s ownership is diversified, with over 1.3 million shareholders. The bank was founded in 1894 and is Nigeria’s oldest bank. It converted to a public company in 1970 and was listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) in 1971. However, as part of the implementation of the non-operating holding company structure, it was delisted from the NSE and replaced with FBN Holdings Plc. in 2012. FirstBank has been named “The Best Bank Brand in Nigeria” for five years in a row – 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 – by The Banker magazine of the Financial Times Group, and “Most Innovative Bank in Africa” in the EMEA Finance African Banking Awards 2014.
- With over 400 business locations, bank has one of the largest domestic sales network in Nigeria, all on-line real time. As a market leader in the financial services sector, First Bank pioneered initiatives in international money transfer, MasterCard, Inters witch and the ATM consortium. It is the industry leader in terms of value and volume of ATM transactions in the country. Consequently.
First Bank commenced business in 1894 in what was then the British colony of Nigeria, as the Bank of British West Africa .
- The bank originally served British shipping and trading agencies in Nigeria. The founder, Alfred Lewis Jones, was a shipping magnate who originally had a monopoly on importing silver currency into West Africa through his Elder Dempster shipping company. According to its founder, without a bank economies were reduced to using barter and a wide variety of mediums of exchange, leading to unsound practices. A bank could provide a secure home for deposits and also a uniform medium of exchange. The bank primarily financed foreign trade, but did little lending to indigenous Nigerians, who had little to offer as collateral for loans.
After Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the Bank began to extend more credit to indigenous Nigerians. At the same time, citizens began to trust British banks since there was an ‘independent’ financial control mechanism and more citizens began to patronise the new Bank of West Africa.
In 1965, Standard Bank acquired the Bank of West Africa and changed its acquisition’s name to Standard Bank of West Africa. In 1969, Standard Bank of West Africa incorporated its Nigerian operations under the name Standard Bank of Nigeria. In 1971, Standard Bank of Nigeria listed its shares on the Nigerian Stock Exchange and placed 13% of its share capital with Nigerian investors. After the end of the Nigerian civil war, Nigeria’s military government sought to increase local control of the retail-banking sector. In response, now Standard Chartered Bank reduced its stake in Standard Bank Nigeria to 38%. Once it had lost majority control, Standard Chartered wished to signal that it was no longer responsible for the bank and the bank changed its name to First Bank of Nigeria Limited in 1979. By then, the bank had re-organized and had more Nigerian directors than ever. In 1991 the Bank changed its name to First Bank of Nigeria Plc following listing on The Nigerian Stock Exchange. In 2012, the Bank changed its name again to First Bank of Nigeria Limited as part of a restructuring resulting in FBN Holdings Plc (“FBN Holdings”), having detached its commercial business from other businesses in the First Bank Group, in line with the requirements of the Central Bank of Nigeria . First Bank had 1.3 million shareholders globally, was quoted on The Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE), where it was one of the most capitalized companies and also had an unlisted Global Depository Receipt (GDR) programme, all of which were transferred to its Holding Company, FBN Holdings in December 2012. In 1982 First Bank opened a branch in London, which it converted into a subsidiary, FBN Bank (UK), in 2002. Its most recent international expansion was the opening in 2004 of a representative office in Johannesburg, South Africa. In 2005 it acquired FBN (Merchant Bankers) Ltd. Paribas and MBC International Bank Ltd, a group of Nigerian investors, had founded MBC in 1982 as a merchant bank, and it became a commercial bank in 2002. In June 2009, Stephen Olabisi Onasanya was appointed Group Managing Director/ Chief Executive Officer , replacing Sanusi Lamido Sanusi , who had been appointed Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria . Onasanya was formerly Executive Director of Banking Operations & Services. He retired on 31 December 2015 and Dr. Adesola Adeduntan took over as Managing Director/Chief Executive Officer, First Bank of Nigeria Ltd and Subsidiaries effective 1 January 2016, with Gbenga Shobo as Deputy Managing Director.
- 1894 – Incorporated and headquartered in Marina, the heart of Lagos, Nigeria, West Africa’s commercial nerve centre (and still there today).
- 1912 – Calabar branch, the second branch in Nigeria, was opened by King Jaja of Opobo; Zaria branch was also opened as the first branch in northern Nigeria.
- 1947 – FirstBank advanced the first long-term loan to the then colonial government, followed in 1955 by a partnership with the government to expand the railway lines.
- 1971 – First listing on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE).
- 1991 – First Automated Teller Machine (ATM) introduced at 35 Marina as part of ease of convenience, online real time banking.
- 1994 – Launched first university endowment programme in Nigeria.
- 2004 – Launched a new brand identity which introduced substantial changes in the look and feel of the FirstBank brand.
- 2007 – Introduced the innovative Finnone credit administration software as the first bank in Africa to pioneer the service.
- 2011 – Launched the first biometric ATM and cash deposit ATM in Nigeria.
- 2012 – Became a subsidiary group of FBN Holdings Plc.
- 2014 – Initiated, at 120 years, the launch of a new corporate identity.
- Chairman – Ibukun Awosika
- Managing Director/CEO – Adesola Adeduntan
- Deputy Managing Director – Olugbenga Francis Shobo
- Executive Director/Public Sector Group – Abdullahi Ibrahim
- Executive Director, Corporate Banking – Remi Oni
In line with the Bank’s vision to be the clear leader and Nigeria’s bank of first choice’, its mission to remain true to our name by providing the best financial services possible’’, and its brand essence, dependably dynamic’’, the Bank has continued to transform itself as it forges ahead in its second century of providing qualitative banking services to the nation, maintaining leadership in a consolidated and more dynamic industry.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
For the purpose of clarity, the following definitions were used for these in the course of the study.
Devices of economic strategy
Having the desired effect, producing the intended result. Making a strong or pleasing impression.
A strong impression or effect on something
To put into effect or carry out
The making and control of decisions in a business or similar organization. The process of dealing with or controlling people or things (resources).
The condition or state of being organized especially in a tidy or efficient way.
A plan of action, statement of ideas, guidelines proposed or adopted by a government, political party or business etc.
A plan designed for a particular purpose
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
Based on the testing of the null hypotheses, it reveal that all data is of goodness of fit and the null hypotheses stand to be rejected and the alternative hypotheses is to be accepted. This result is conducted as a result of the outcome of the test from both one simple test and nonparametric correlation in which are used for check balance the result for easy and better decision based on the result of the test, using SPSS DATA output to translate it into meaning from the above statement with the help of one simple test, to reveal that effective planning and control is an efficient and indispensable tool for bank profitability, of which the alternative hypothesis is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected.
And the correlations of the hypothesis were tested using nonparametric correlations to test the relationships between strategic planning and overall performance of the bank (First Bank of Nigeria Plc), from the result of the test shows that there is relationships between strategic planning and overall performance of the bank according to the result of the test, therefore the alternative hypothesis is accepted, of which simply means that strategic planning and quality result of overall bank performance is highly correlated. It also prove that the anticipated planning have a positive impact on to the bank performance and profitability
Based on the literature review and above discussion on effect of strategic planning on organizational performance, it can be concluded that, strategic planning has important contributions in order to achieve a better organizations and employees‟ performance. Therefore, the relationship of each dimensions of strategic planning was tested toward performance of the organization using nonparametric correlations method. It is hoped that the findings of this study will be able to help the organization to understand how the strategic planning can help to make better decision in the future. Strategic planning of corporate bodies is an essential instrument for planning and forecasting which positions the organization to meet demands and changes which might come up in the course of discharging its services. This study reveals that, ADB as a corporate body has a clear strategic plan which is articulated to all of its employees at various levels and departments within the bank. It reveals that, the strong agreement of factors of various dimensions of strategic planning indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of such planning adopted by employees of the bank and hence affects the bank’s performance positively.
In the light of above findings, some pertinent recommendations were made. These recommendations are geared towards assurance of organizational and employees‟ performance, growth through effective strategic planning and to help the bank to enhance its operations.
This study recommends the following:
- That Nigeria firms should give more serious attention to strategic planning, separate other types of planning from strategic planning, endeavor to choose appropriate strategies that matches for every strategic plans and as well adopt and effectively implement the full tenets of strategic planning.
- Employee welfare is an indispensable factor of strategic planning as all tenets of strategic planning (formulation, implementation, evaluation and control) must be executed through its human capital, therefore every organization must endeavor to take the welfare of its human resources very serious for assurance of effective strategic planning. In other words, for organizations to survive through attainment of its objectives, employees must play an indispensable role.
- All factors of various dimensions should be put into the right perspective, so as to help the general workforce of the bank to understand the main objectives and the strategic plans in place to achieve the objectives of the bank per each fiscal year of first bank.
- This will enlighten the employees of the bank to gear towards delivering services to enhance the general strategy of the bank and to raise its performance.
- Moreover, the factor „In-depth program evaluation is conducted as part of the planning process. This includes assessment based on identified benchmarks for quality and specific outcomes and process objectives‟ should be redefined, well communicated to staff and corrected where mistakes are committed so as to bring it back on board to achieve a great measure on it to help the bank’s strategic planning policy. Again all the factors relative to leadership should be well articulated to management and staff of the bank. This will help the employees to know and understand the style of leadership adopted for the operations and governance of the bank to keep them focus in working towards achieving the objectives of the bank.
- It is also recommended that lines of communication between managerial and non-managerial staff should be improved in order to encourage and support the flow of information and feedback mechanisms.
- In addition to the above, set program goals and budgets should be properly communicated to staff for them to have a knowledge of the banks goals and resources budgetary allocations. Furthermore, it is recommended that first bank develops quarterly for a to provide employees the opportunity to be heard on matters relative to the strategic planning practices at first bank.
- The management of First Bank of Nigeria Plc should determine what the goals of the organization are, and attempt to review different strategic management and policy implementation for the goals, personal needs and value of the organization.
- The management of the company should strive to balance between creating awareness in strategic management and condition that emphasize achievement and effectiveness.
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