The Effect Of Storage On Unrefined Vegetable Oil

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

The Effect Of Storage On Unrefined Vegetable Oil


Abstract


This research work was aimed at determining the effect of storage on unrefined vegetable oil. In the course of this research work, palm oil was used as a sample to determined the effect of storage to unrefined vegetable oil. A storage on interest was developed on this research work to have a standard knowledge on the storage problems of palm oil in particulars when not refined.

In the analysis of this research work, the empirical tests from the British standard institute (BSI) for assessing the quality of palm oil were carried out on five selected parameters. These are free fatty acid (FFA),a cid values (AV), sapenfification values (S.V), perceoxide (M.S).

These experiments were conducted weekly and the results obtained show that as the time of storage increase the values of these test parameter increase. The results obtained implies that, as the time of storage increase there is increase in the deterioration of the palm oil since the test parameters above increase.

These results were clearly shown on graphs plotted (figure 3.01-3.05) for each of the parameters against time of storage.


Table Of Content


  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Objective
  • 1.2 Scope

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 literature review
  • 2.1 types of vegetable oils
  • 2.2 classification of vegetable oil
  • 2.3 classification according to dominant fatty acids
  • 2.4 brief history of plant source
  • 2.5 palm oil processing methods
  • 2.6 Composition of palm oil
  • 2.7 Empirical analysis for assessing the quality of vegetable oil
  • 2.8 Physical properties of vegetable oil
  • 2.9 Chemical properties of vegetable oil
  • 2.10 Changes in the specified properties with time of storage
  • 2.11 Literature details of carrying out the empirical tests
  • 2.12 literature results of the specified properties
  • 2.13 causes of vegetables oil deterioration

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 experimental method and results
  • 3.1 fee fatty acid
  • 3.2. acid value
  • 3.3. moisture content
  • 3.4. saponification value
  • 3.5. specific gravity
  • 3.6. peroxide vale
  • 3.7. analysis of results
  • 3.8. sample calculations of the specified properties
  • 3.9. tabulated results of the specified properties

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Discussion

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion
  • 5.1 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendixes

Chapter One


Introduction

The world β€œfats” names a food group that includes what is probably though as both fats and plant supplies and are usually solid a room temporate oils are produced mainly from plants and are liquids. The most common oils are extracted from seed (safflower, sunflower, sesame, canda, flex) beans (peanuts, soy), grains 9corn wheat germ) fruits (avocado, olive) and nuts (almond, coconut, walnut, palm kernel).

In the natural foods industries, the term unrefined vegetable oil is used for expeller pressed unrefined vegetables oils.

When labeled, unrefined oils should contain only 100% expeller pressed oil of the first pressing. Unrefined vegetable oils are processed using a higher standard (great care0. tank and line flowly with hart goes, washing and purging of lines between different vegetable oils, and proper degregation of vegetable oils are all handling techniques used to inhume healthier, better quality vegetable oils.

The properties of vegetable oils are very important factors in food industries as they determine the actual quality-freshness and shelf life of oil processed or bought from the market. This is because as finished goods (canned foods, sterilized foods etc) deteriorate, so also do unrefined vegetable oil depreciate in quality when stored for a considerable long period of time and the only way industries that uses them for production can check the qualities is only by carrying out an empirical study on the depreciating properties of the oil.

The analysis aim testing of fats and oil is needed for an assessment of the quality and the purity as well as for their identification. A number of physical and chemical constants have been established for these purpose. Although many of them are empirical, others are guite specific measurement of the properties of the oil. Those most commonly used to establish identity are, saponfication value, iodine value refinactive index, free fatty acid, peroxide value, moisture content, etc. a comparative study of the effect of storage on the properties of unrefined vegetable oil is therefore essential for checking the various factors that results to the change in properties of unrefined vegetable oil when stored for a long period of time. This from the bases or aim of this research work.

Since, there are so many kinds of unrefined vegetable oil as there are vegetable oils it will not be possible for all of them to be exhausted in this work. To this end, unrefined palm oil will be used as the experimental sample.

Sequel to the various studies made, it is believed that at the end of this research work, the society will come to know that strong unrefined palm oil for a long period of time will affect certain important properties which reduces the value of the oil for a particular application. Moreover, the knowledge to be developed form this research work will be appreciated in the storage and preservation f the unrefined palm oil, as wel as the various uses for which the oils might be put into such as, paint making, soap and detergent production, lubricants, pharmaceuticals, plaxticsers, cooking etc.


1.1 Objectives

The objectives of this research work is to determine the effect of storage on the properties of unrefined vegetable oil by carrying out various empirical test and to compare them with the commercial standards and trading rules of Nigeria industries standards for food and quality control (NIS). It is also aimed at educating the masses on the keeping factor of unrefined vegetable oils, some empirical tests that could be embarked upon to determine the quality of the oil and to achieve on its storage characteristics.


1.2 Scope

The scope of this research work is limited to the study of the effect of storage on unrefined vegetable oil using simple laboratory method.

  1. Discuss types and classification of vegetable oil
  2. Describe the various constituents of unrefined palm oil
  3. Describe and carryout physical and chemical test properties of assessing unrefined vegetable oil such as;
    • Acid value
    • Saponfication value
    • Moisture content
    • Peroxide value
  4. Describe the causes of unrefined? Palm oil deterioration
    • Rancidity
    • Heat
    • Light
    • Aum

Chapter Five


Conclusion

In view of all indication with respect to the theoretical and experimental analysis conducted and the results obtained, it is observed that oil (palm oil) deteriorates with respect to time. It can be justified that also or concluded that time of storage affects the characteristics properties of vegetable oil (palm oil).

Also, the pragmatic empirical method approach for analyzing the quality of vegetable oil is the best practical method for assessing the deterioration of vegetable oil with respect to time.

This research work, therefore shows clearly why edible oils should be refined and stored in a very good environment if the shelve life of the oil will be maintained long enough.


Recommendation

Unrefined vegetable oil such as palm oil if not properly stored will lead to deterioration which could affect its important characterizes and quality. Deteriorated oils are not good for human consumption, however they can be employed for other uses like in the production of soap and detergents. This is recommended as the cost of refining the deteriorated oil may be too high to make the end product unprofitable.

To minimize the deterioration of palm oil it is important to specify some measures. This, the following measures are recommended for storage of vegetable oil (palm oil)

  1. Palm oil must be processed with sterilized equipment that will not contaminant the oil and stored in a clean dry container, theat are air tight of about 500f to 700f temperature.
  2. It must be packaged and processed with Nitrogen can inert gas.
  3. During storage, it can be stored with the additon of antioxidant to control rancidity in the oil
  4. Palm oil can be processed with citicl acid to inactivate trace metals (copper and iron) which account for the production of rancid off-flavor and odour in the oil
  5. Before storage of unrefined vegetable oil, tocophenols should be added

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