Effect Of Socio Economic Status On Social Adjustment And Academic Performances Of Secondary School Student

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Effect Of Socio Economic Status On Social Adjustment And Academic Performances Of Secondary School Student


Abstract


This study is on effect of socio economic status on social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school student. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Ejigbo local government of Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals,vice principals administration, senior staff andjunior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The social economic status of the parents is determined by their education, job, income, political power and prestige in society. Parson and Sardo-Brown (2001) described the “Socio-economic Status is the term used to distinguish between people’s relative position in the society in terms of family income, political power, educational back ground and occupational prestige”. According to these indicators peoples are categories in social economic status classes or groups. The group has higher degree, better job, higher income and some status in the society is categorized as upper class, the other which have relatively low income less education and less status are categories as middle class and the group which is low on these indicators is known as lower class.

Bond (1981) study the relation of social economic status and educational achievement. He concluded that the students from different classes do not perform at the same level of achievement. The

Performance of students belongs to lower class was poor and the reason identified by him was the non supportive attitude of teachers towards them.

Kaeley (1990) studied the influence of SES, entry style and instructional variables on learning of Mathematics in Neo-literate society. He concluded that SES affects the achievement in mathematics. The findings of his research further showed that the classroom instructions have no significant effect on mathematics achievement.

Verma and Tiku (1990) conducted a research to study the SES and general intelligence. He found no interaction between intelligence and socio-economic status was noted with regard to high school students.

Mirza (2001) conducted a research to study the “relationship of SES with achievement” and the findings showed that socio economic status of students has fairly significant effect on their achievement without giving the clear description regarding which socio economic status class has greater achievement and which perform poorly.

Sirin (2005) in his research reviewed the research studies already conducted during the period of 1990-2000 on the same topic. The result showed medium to strong relationship between socio economic status and achievement.

Barry (2005) also reported the same result; i.e. high achievers belong to high SES and low achievers belongs to low socio-economic status. Ewijk and Sleegers (2010) also concluded that SES is an important determinant of academic achievement. Academic performance is the outcome of all those activities which are going on in the environment around the individual. According to Piaget (1969,) this change occurs in the result of assimilation, accommodation and adaptation of new ideas.

Vygotsky (1978,) said that “every function in child’s development appears twice: first on the social level and then on individual level”. This means that individual academic achievement is affected by social interaction. It does not negate the Piaget’s point of view, it only gives broader view that an individual achieve not at his own but the social environment around him also affect his academic performance.

According to Olotu (1994), in the quest of finding survival feet, the nation has evolved series of socio-economic and educational measures and policies such as; Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP), Austerity measures, Universal Primary Education (UPE), Universal Basic Education (UBE) and devaluation of the Naira. These measures have not improved the social-economic and educational status of families in the country. They have rather increased their sufferings and widened the socio-economic gap between families.

Johnson (1996) lamented that parents become poor due to these hard measures, such that they can no longer provide adequately for good education of their children. Also, they can no longer provide shelter, clothing and special need of their children in school (such as provision of text books, school uniforms and good medical care and so on).

According to Danesy (2004), complimenting environmental and socio-economic factors to produce high academic achievements and performance include good teaching, counseling, good administration, good seating arrangement and good building. Dilapidating buildings, lacking mental stimulating facilities that are characterized with low or no seating arrangement will also be destructive.

Okon (2006) emphasized that socio-economic status of a person affect his or her attitude and life chances. These attitudes include: positive or negative attitude towards academic, food, dressing, drug use and abuse and the group the individual belongs.

In the same vein, Aluede and Maliki (1998) emphasized the socio-economic status of parents as a major determinant of the attitude of students towards anti-social behaviors. They further stated that students of low socio-economic families lack basic necessities of life and are both economically weak and socially depressed. Such students develop certain negative psychological feeling which often lead to frustration and could culminate in the manifestation of poor academic achievement.

Kallaghan (1972) observed that there is a positive correlation between socio-economic status of parents and students attitudes and behaviour manifestations. He opined that the relationship between the two variables may be the economic advantage of the parents, which enables them to give their children the materials money can buy. A child from a high socioeconomic background is enriched with necessities of life, receives stimulating experiences that translates into a healthy attitude towards life generally.

Socioeconomic statuscan be defined as a person’s overall social position to which attainments in both the social and economic domain contribute. (Ainley et al., 1995). When used in studies of children’s school achievement, it refers to the SES of the parents or family. Socio-economic status is determined by individual’s achievements in: education; employment and occupational status; and income and wealth.

Students from low-socio-economic status backgrounds are less well adjusted academically and personal-emotionally, as well as having less attachment to their university than their peers from higher social economic status backgrounds.

Several comprehensive reviews of the relationship between socio- economic status and academic performance exist (Amato, 1987; Williams et al., 1991; Mukherjee, 1995; Ainley et al., 1995). These studies and reviews make it clear that children from low social economic status families are more likely to exhibit the following patterns in terms of academic performance compared to children from high social economic status families:

  1. Have lower levels of literacy, numeracy and comprehension;
  2. Have lower retention rates (children from low SES families are more likely to leave school early);
  3. Have lower higher education participation rates (children from low SES families are less likely to attend university);
  4. Exhibit higher levels of problematic school behavior (for instance truancy);
  5. Are more likely to have difficulties with their studies and display negative attitudes to school; and
  6. Have less successful school-to-labour market transitions.

These results remain the same irrespective of how socio- economic status is measured and whether the studies are based on individual or aggregate level data (Graetz, 1995).

Similarly, studies of children’s educational achievements over time have also demonstrated that social background remains one of the major sources of educational inequality. (Graetz, 1995). In other words, educational success depends very strongly on the socio-economic status of one’s parents. (Edgar, 1976, Graetz1995).

Adebayo (1981) observed that the social status of individuals is a reflection of their economic status and he went further to explain that socio-economic status is usually a measure of the income and occupation of the individual, irrespective of his or her educational or social standing. According to him this has a tremendous influence on students’ behaviour.

Ezewu (1987) posited that socio-economic status can affect the academic performance of students in terms of early attendance at school, attendance of best schools and the provision of necessary materials. The students from low socioeconomic status would find it difficult to obtain his needs from his parents. So he or she may belured into anti social behaviour in order to meet his needs.

Giddens (1996) in a longitudinal study of the influence of socio-economic status of parents on children’s behavior found out that children with behavioral problems come from families with low socio-economic background.

Okon (2006) emphasized that socio-economic status of a person affect his or her attitude and life chances. These attitudes include: positive or negative attitude towards academic, food, dressing, drug use and abuse and the group the individual belongs.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problems that are inherent in students’ social adjustment and academic performance cannot be over emphasized. This is because the high rate of failures among student has been attributed to high level of illiteracy, poverty and low socio-economic status coupled with high rate of paternal and maternal deprivation of students’ academic needs, which was necessitated by poor socio-economic situation of the country.

The crucial factor in poor homes is that Parents of low economic status cannot fulfill the legitimate needs of their children. This financial incapability makes students vulnerable to the deceit of anti social behavior, which may affect the academic performance of the child either positively or negatively. Parent of low economic status may not be able to pay the school fees of the children, purchase their educational materials such as books, uniforms and other necessary items for the child’s success in school. When a student lacks the privilege of being provided for and supported to succeed in his or her education, the child may not have high educational achievement (Ayo 2002). Parents who cannot afford the basic necessities for their children as a result of low economic status would not help the children in optimizing his potentials and capabilities to excel as expected.

The above problems, give rise to the examination of the effect of socio economic status on students’ social adjustment and academic performance.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to:

  1. To find out the effect of SES on the student.
  2. To find out whether Parent SES have influence on student social adjustment and academic performance.
  3. To find out factors in the environment that militates against students’ academic performance and social adjustment.
  4. To find out if occupation of parent have effect on students’ academic performance.
  5. To know if there is any relationship between socio-economic status and students’ academic performance.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: There will be no significant effects of SES on students’ social adjustment.

H1: There will be significant effects of SES on students’ social adjustment.

H02:There will be no significant difference between environmental factors and students’ academic performance

H2:There will be significant difference between environmental factors and students’ academic performance


1.6 Significance of the Study

  1. The findings will be of immense worth to parent and adults to know the impact of socio economic status and social adjustment in their children’s academic performance and to know the consequences there-in.
  2. The study will also help the students greatly because it will enlighten them on some variables attributable to their academic failure and to consult the school counselor who would be of help in resolving the problems.
  3. The study would also be of benefit to the school counselors, psychologists, sociologists, educators, government and general public with a thorough understanding of different socio economic , the associated problems and the extent to which these problems influence students in school.
  4. At the end of the research work, the government and policy makers will see need for providing all secondary schools with adequate counselors, sociologists and psychologists who would help in student related problems such as; the socio economic status, parental influence and variables so as to help foster their academic performance.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers effect of socio economic status on social adjustment and academic performance of secondary student. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Social Economic Status:

This is the term used to distinguish between people’s relative position, rank in relation to others in the society in terms of family income, political power, educational back ground and occupational prestige.

Academic Performance:

This is referred to as the result of a task given to student in an academic environment.

Social Adjustment:

This is the ability to integrate successfully with others in a defined environment.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was on effect of socio economic status on social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school student. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of effect of socio economic status on social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school student


5.2 Summary

This study was on effect of socio economic status on social adjustment and academic performance of secondary school student. Five objectives were raised which included:To find out the effect of SES on the student, to find out whether Parent SES have influence on student social adjustment and academic performance, to find out factors in the environment that militates against students’ academic performance and social adjustment, to find out if occupation of parent have effect on students’ academic performance, to know if there is any relationship between socio-economic status and students’ academic performance.In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary school in Ejigbo local government of Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals,vice principals administration, senior staff andjunior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The findings from this study and the conceptual frame work have clearly show that socio-economic factors have a dominant impact on the school achievement of the adolescent. The important of socio-economic has clearly been emphasized as crucial in the adolescent life. The relationship between the socio-economic factors and academic performance cannot be over emphasized. It creates an enabling environment, which goes a long way in influencing the outlook of the adolescent. An adolescent that has access to good food, health facilities, school books, and other materials is prone to display quick understanding and increase intelligence specially where there is strict supervision by both parents and teachers. Generally, in Nigeria, the higher socio-economic families have educational facilities at home for their children to manipulate very early in life. They also send their children to kindergarten schools and buy the required text books. They encourage their children to study when they are back from school and persuade the underachieving ones to see the school counsellors, and this goes a long way to improve academic achievement of the adolescent children.


5.4 Recommendation

Education constitutes an important industry in developing countries like Nigeria as it provides the required manpower in the development process. Parents should therefore consider the adolescents education as a rewarding investment and make all the necessary provision for them to be properly trained to became good and productive citizen in the society. Guidance and counselling services should be emphasized especially in government and public schools to aid adolescents with problem. Which usually emanate from emotional distress. The emergence and wide spread of private schools across the nation has made it impossible for governments schools to function properly. This is because most of our teachers and the rich people in the country prefer the private schools to public school for their children while the less privilege has no option but to continue with the public school. In order to balance the wide gap, government should restructure all public schools across the country by ensuring that qualified teacher are recruited and well paid. Also basic amenities should be provided for the public schools to ensure that standard is maintained. School fees, tuition fees, and all other academic level should be made affordable to the parents.


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Frequently Asked Questions


How does socioeconomic status affect student performance?

Saifi (2011) investigated the effect of socioeconomic status on student’s performance. Results revealed that parental education and occupation and facilities at home affect the student’s achievement. Eamon (2005) revealed that students whose parental socioeconomic status is low do not show effective performance in school.

Do students with high or low socioeconomic status have high academic achievement?

Thus our findings suggests that students with high socioeconomic status have high academic achievement than students with low socioeconomic status on the basis of our findings we can say our first hypothesis (There would be significant difference on achievement of students between high and low socioeconomic status) is accepted.

How does parental status affect student academic performance?

Parental status is one of such variables. Socio economic status of parents do not only affect the academic performance, but also makes it possible for children from low background to compete well their counterparts from high socio economic background under the same academic environment (Rothestein, 2004). Education is a tool of development.

What is socioeconomic status?

Socioeconomic status is the blend of economic and sociological measures of an individual work experience and the economic and social position of an individual or family in connection to others on the premise of income, educational level and occupational status. 

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