The Causes And Effect Of Smoking On The Academic Performance Of Students In Akoko Edo Local Government Area Of Edo State
The purpose of this study was to find out the causes and effect of smoking on there academic performance of students in Akoko Edo Local Government Area of Edo State using a random sampling method, a total of 100 questionnaires were administered to 25 students in St Paul’s Grammar Schools Igarra, 25 were also administered to students in Okpameri Mixed Grammar School Ibillo, 25 were administered to students in Ososo Grammar School and 25 Students in Ugboshi Grammar School, majority of them started smoking in their secondary school days, while others started in other schools. Various reasons were given for smoking ranging from relaxation while some respondents said they cannot tell because they don’t smoke. And majority of them smoke 1-4 sticks of cigarette per day. Some were influenced by their friends or parents. Fro the study, it was found that cigarette smoking is habit forming and has some long term illness in man such as metal illness or memory impairment, cancer agoraphobia, anxiety disorder and panic disorder, lack of reading, lack of concentration absent mindedness which can result to poor academic performance.
1.1 Background of the Study
Smoking was said to have originated from the America Indians, it is from the suppression of physical pains, the relief of anxiety, frustration and the production of pleasurable sensation of moods which have being into practice for so many years ago (turner et al, 1970). In recent time, smoking have become a big problematic issue in the society as a result of continuous increase in practice of smoking among pre-adolescence school boys and girls investigating daily report over the media, indicate an alarming rate of smoking among teenagers and that smoking has extended to school children. According to turner et al (1970) stated that serious effects of dangerous smoking appears in school age youth that even a small amount of second hand smoke can hinder a child’s ability, effecting reading Maths and reasoning skills.
A new study show that 70% of all children in the society are to environment tobacco smoke in their homes and 85% of children have detectable levels of continue in their blood. According to Tayman and Penmel (1992) said that 947 million packs of cigarettes are smoked each year by teen under eighteen years old. Many youth who smoke cigarettes are “high-risk” with you attendance law performance multiple drug use. High stress levels low self esteem and inadequate social support. Adolescent who smoked heavily was 6.87 times more likely to develop a panic disorder as young adults than were count parts who smoked fewer then 20 cigarettes a day or not. As a result of the frequent report in both print and electronic media about the effect of smoking on the academic performance of student in the society both the youth and adult indulging themselves in smoking cocaine together with other dangerous leaves, the federal government established a campaign team to go to school to organized a lecture on the effect is smoking towards the academic performance of students especially the youth.
There are some advance countries that have been made to control and fight again smoking as a result of its effect. According to Jenne Greane (1976) said the society have. Attempted to control smoking of psychoactive substance largely, Through restrictive laws propaganda or education that focus on their ill effect toward student’s performance and treatment programme and designed to cure e.g. madness- the federal government leaf from the above with the establishment of the national smoking enforcement agency to mount strong propaganda on the evil effect of smoking. One of the ways used to far is through the print and electronic meet through the print and electronic of populace. Despite the effort mounted to fight against smoking, there seems to be no success particular among the teenagers who continue to experiment on smoking. According to Adesina 1980 and professor Kuti (1992) it has been discovered that about two million people are feared des of cancer of lungs, kidneys and heart due to smoking. Therefore the apparent prevalence of the effect in school justifies the study of problems and from the point of view of an educationist, the use of tobacco recreational smoking appears to be useful predictors of children life styles and different ad children performance in schools.
Smoking is posing a threat to human health especially the youth in this country. Those who are smokers are unable to perform maximally and therefore have restriction of full life. Smoking is gradually finding its way into primary school as children are seen drinking hot drinks e.g. schnapps of wine and eat kola in public place even at home because of environment influence. Any well meaning campaign against smoking should start from the home or child.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Due to the effect of smoking towards the academic performance of student, many students that involved in smoking have contracted some serious problem learning process. For example, it can make them to refuse reading;
- It cause restlessness
- It causes memory impairment
- It leads to absent mindedness
- It causes cancer which makes the students to spend his or her money and time in the hospital
- It causes frustration among the students, which reads to lack of concentration during learning process.
- It causes high stress levels.
- It causes low self esteem.
- It leads to low academic performance.
- It leads to anxiety disorder and panic disorderliness.
- It causes agoraphobia which leads to poor school attendance.
Therefore children should be told or lecture by parents the evils of smoking towards their academic performance and it should be taught by the class teacher at schools.
1.3 Purpose of Study.
The purpose of this study is:
- To determine the exited to which the effects of smoking have hindered the academic performance of student in Akoko Edo local government area of Edo state.
- To bring to the awareness of parents the effect of cigarette smoking on the performance of the children.
- To educate students on the ills of cigarette smoking.
- To create awareness to the public on the effect of cigarette smoking on academic performance of students
The investigation is not a medical person but just a teacher who is interest in the general development of the pre-adolescent and the smooth lives of the adult, the language in this study is lay with no sophisticated smoking (marijuana) technologies or even traces of the language of man and woman as the medical profession. Beside the discussion that follows relates more to how the educational system can be helped than anything else. It is with this limitation in mind that the readers is limited to interpret this finding
1.4 Research Question
- It there any relationship between cigarette smoking and peer pressure?
- Does cigarette smoking on the health of smokers?
- Does level of awareness on the complication of smoking have effect on smokers?
- It there any relationship between cigarette and student performance.
1.5 Significance of Study
This study will help to increase the knowledge of both adolescent and adult and the entire society of the effect of cigarette smoking on the academic performance of student in Akoko local government area of Edo state.
1.6 Delimitation of Study
The study of is concerned only with selected schools in Akoko Edo local government area of Edo state. These schools will however be a representative of the diversified locality. Therefore the result obtained can be generalized to Edo state.
Discussion of Findings and Recommendations
5.1 Discussion of the Findings
The researcher found out that the effect of smoking on students social behaviour is demonstrated and exhibited due to changes in environment and school climate. This behaviour occurs in diverse styles and dimension which includes differing stress, joblessness, peer pressure and parental background. The above finding agree with the view of Graham‘s (1973) who noted that, smoking students ordinarily enjoyed Cannabis which suffer him dizziness tremor, disoriented and becoming stupous in an environment.
The findings also agree with Isabel, (1971) who observed that interaction with marijuana smokers revealed a continuous increases in its smoker by students, that result to frustration and difficulty in fulfilling ethics of the society. The National Institute on drug Abuse (2005) opines that, environmental life style has regulate him on smoking marijuana which cause burning and stinging of the mouth, throat and often accompanied by a heavy cough.
Influence of smoking on students social behaviour, the researcher discovered that experimentation of emulating or adapting behaviour may en-croach individual into full participation of a learned behaviour. Base on this fact, most of these subjects in the area found their feet in so many aspect of life. The researcher observed that, drug use, truancy armed rubbery, delinquencies and examination malpractices areamong the social behaviour exhibited by students. Steinberg (1996) stated that, externalizing social behaivour and internalizing social behaviour are observable behaviour commonly developed and learned among young students in secondary school which are negatively to the sustainability in life style. Eze (2005) also observed that some depressed students can also resort to smoking and become delinquents in behaviour. Eze (2005) opines that many youngsters indulge in smoking as way of fulfilling their sense of belonging to peer group.
The researcher also discovered that smoking does influence students academic performance. The finding were in agreement with the views of Dewey (1999) that smoking is a risk factor for academic problems such as lower grades, absenteeism and high dropout rates. smoking interferes with students ability to think, making learning and concentration more difficult. Elliot (1978) said that evidence is clear that poor school performance, truancy, leaving school at young age are connected to smoking by students Elliot (1978) still observed that early aggressive behaviour usually lead to difficulties in the classroom.
Gottfredson (1987) suggested that schools should include programmes designed which shall improve students social behaviour and academic performance. Dishion (1999) said that students who have poor academic planning may find themselves with so much problems to readfew days to their examination. They take marijuana to keep them awake of night or to forget the anxiety and fears of the examination.
Again, an interesting study was done by Crowely (1980), observed the influence of smoking and academic performance on secondary school students.
The findings of this study have some implication for the government, parents teachers, educational psychologist, as well as the students themselves. The finding showed that there are behavoural pattern of life which are exhibited by students due to environmental changes. The citation of school or location of school in remote environment on the part of government has contributed to many of these students involvement in smoking. Some of their behaviour is disoriented, tremor, dizziness and warming.
It is also observed from the finding that, poor perception, disorientation and action of many parents towards their children and wards at home were not properly groom s a result they find themselves is smoking marijuana. Therefore, the idea of organizing seminars and conference by the government, schools, churches and concerned stakeholders will helps in changing the behaviour of students smoker and parent action.
Another important implication of the finding is that, many student who smoke marijuana experience academic problem by getting lower grades in school, absenteeism and high dropout rates from school. Ability to think or having good concentration in learning is finding to be a difficult problem to these smokers. Teachers and counselors in schools should be reinforced of this students differences and treat them with love and caution.
Based on the finding of this study, the following recommendations are made:
That the government, school administration and churches should organize seminars and conference for the parents on how environment has a vital role play in children up-bringing, they should regularly spell out-those things that will enable them to be responsible or hold their personality high and things that will not sabotage their personality.
That the teachers and schools administrator, and all concerned should remain aware of the individual differences of these students and do well to work with them effectively and efficiently.
That the students should know that only hard work produces success in life and try harder of their school work in order to achieve success and become responsible citizens worthy of emulation by others, not to interfere with smoking or bad gang that will result to frustration and difficulty in fulfilling ethic of the society.
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