Effect Of Single Parenthood On Adolescent Socio-Moral Behaviour

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Effect Of Single Parenthood On Adolescent Socio-Moral Behaviour


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Single parenthood is a phenomenon that has existed since the dawn of time and is as old as humanity itself. A single parent, according to Dowd Nancy (1997), is a parent who does not live with a spouse or partner and is responsible for the most of the day-to-day obligations in parenting the kid or children. Children’s socialization is critical for every culture’s long-term survival. The family, particularly for children, is said to be the most effective agent of socialization. Most families rear their children in a strongly organized and disciplined setting, with parents assisting in instilling and inculcating clear fundamental cultural, ethical, social, physical, and cognitive values in their children (Santrock, 2002). With the rise of industrialization and globalization, the African system of growing children in extended family patterns has shifted dramatically. The accelerated societal transition that comes with globalization has destroyed family lives (Olaleye, Y.L et al, 2010). Many of the traditional rituals and traditions that have been taught and followed for many years are quickly becoming outdated. Global culture has evolved and outgrown ideals and advantages that were once considered to be central to our society’s beliefs and values. What was once considered inappropriate has now been a quick and increasingly growing theme. In Nigeria, single parenthood was unheard, and where it did happen, it was dismissed as a rare occurrence. They are, however, rapidly expanding family dynamics both within and outside Nigeria, and have become much more prevalent than the so-called “nuclear family,” which consists of a mother or father and their offspring (Tenibiaje M.O. et al 2011). Divorce, split, parent death, accidental conception or birth of unmarried couples, and single parent adoption are all common factors of single parenthood in today’s culture (Amato, 2000). Parental duties are culturally structured and allocated among the Yoruba people of Nigeria. The maternal functions include infant rearing, home schooling, and complementary roles, while the paternal roles include financial responsibility and child education. When both parents share the caring obligations, the kid is morally, cognitively, and emotionally balanced. (M.O. Tenibiaje et al., 2011). When an infant is raised by a single parent, the parent’s life becomes more demanding and difficult. If this stage of a child’s existence is not well handled, it may result in life maladjustment. Women are almost often the main caregivers, but when the topic of single parenthood is brought up, it almost often involves women. She becomes the family’s breadwinner and head of household, in addition to being the main caregiver. The demographics of single parenting reveal a spike in the number of children residing in single parent households around the world (Jayson, Sharon 13 May, 2009). In the United States, single parenting has become the norm, and it is also a common practice in many other nations. Debates have erupted about concerns affecting single parent homes, among other things. The number of single parent households has risen dramatically in recent years, and it is now a global phenomenon. According to Hamburg (2004), marital breakup often causes significant emotional disturbance in the child-parent partnership. As compared to two parent households, almost twice as often children from one parent families drop out of kindergarten.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Parenthood is difficult enough under the best of circumstances. To say the least, being a single parent in our culture is difficult. This is due to the fact that the pressures of having just one parent are many. In recent years, single parenting in our culture has attracted a lot of attention and inquiry. 2011 (Chiemelie Ezeobi). “The effects of single parenting are far ranging since it affects not just the parents, but also the children,” says Funmilayo Oriyomi (2011), a communicator. In reality, since single motherhood leaves profound scars on children, the consequences are far more terrible. Being a single parent is a difficult and demanding job. Many of the challenges that single parents face are identical to those that two-parent families face, but they seem to be more complicated to bear or maintain while only one individual is responsible for the household. As they grow up and attempt to be independent, all youngsters, for example, feel angry toward their parents. However, in a case when all of the rage and rebellion is aimed at one individual, it can seem worse if there is just one person to endure it, rather than two. There are several unique issues that just a single parent faces, making it more difficult to raise children. Bitterness against an estranged parent, isolation, hunger, and fear over raising children alone without assistance are among these issues. Single parents often cling to their children or overindulge them for these and other causes. Members may have unreasonable expectations that the family would work as a two-parent family, and when it does not, they may believe something is wrong. Children who live with their parents for a long time do not have as many stressful encounters as children who live with single parents. Although different schools define stress differently, it is widely understood to occur when external pressures outnumber people’s coping capabilities. This causes mental anguish, as well as a decrease in ability to perform in school, job, and family duties, as well as an increase in physiological arousal signs. Influencers beyond the immediate family are increasingly socializing children. Children are subject to possibly harmful circumstances as a consequence of inadequate parental treatment and instruction triggered by divorce, breakup, or death of a spouse (Olaleye, Y.L and Oladeji David, April 2010). When a mother is out from the house, leaving the children in the care of a stepmother, these children are vulnerable to a variety of issues, including inadequate nutrition, carelessness, a lack of motivation to study or learn, infections and illnesses, and mental disturbance (fear, insecurity). As a result, they are unlikely to do well in school. Step-parents do not show their stepchildren much love and attention. As a result, these youngsters have mental impairment, personality issues, and are unhappy. They engage in behaviour such as lying, stealing, and skipping school. Domestic labour is and, and household tasks are being redistributed, leaving children with little to little time to study (Adelani Tijani and Ogunbanwo B, 2008)


1.3 Objective Of The Study

  1. To compare the prevalence of challenges experienced by children in single parent families to a similar group of children from dual parent families.
  2. To see why boys, rather than children, tend to have a higher prevalence of issues in single-parent households.
  3. To see whether there is a connection between the age of the infant at the time of parental separation and the difficulties that children in single parent households experience.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Is there a major difference in the challenges that children in single-parent households confront vs children in dual-parent households?
  2. Is there a significant difference between the challenges that boys and girls in single parent homes face?
  3. Is there a connection between the age of the infant at the time of separation and the difficulties that children in single parent homes face?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The importance of this research is anticipated to have both theoretical and practical implications for all education stakeholders who will have access to the study’s final product. In theory, the findings could statistically confirm whether single parenthood has an effect on adolescent educational achievement in Ogun state. It will also aid in explaining the degree of effects, if any, of environmental and peer group activities variables on adolescent educational achievement. In practice, the findings of this study will be valuable to single parents as a source of praise or criticism in order to preserve or ensure their children’s excellent scholastic accomplishment without bias. Furthermore, the conclusions and recommendations of the study will assist the Department of Education and teachers in preparing and implementing regular educational programs for adolescents, who will be the potential drivers of the country’s economy.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study tried to address issues that could indicate whether single motherhood had a significant, weak, or no impact on teenage educational success. The study did not take into consideration unmarried men and women who may or may not have never parented a child in any capacity, as assessed by the instruments’ contents and requirements.


1.7 Limitation Of Study

Due to budget and time restrictions, the researcher was only able to conduct his study in a secondary school in Ifo LGA, Ogun State. This sample does not fully represent the behaviour of the complete student population.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Single:

Only one; not one of several.

Parenthood:

The state of being a parent and the responsibilities involved.

Adolescent:

Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood. Adolescence is usually associated with the teenage years, but its physical, psychological or cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later.

Socio-Moral:

Relating to society and morality.

Behaviour:

The way in which one acts or conducts oneself, especially towards others.


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