Effect Of Sexuality Education Among Household And Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviour

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Effect Of Sexuality Education Among Household And Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behaviour


Abstract


This study investigated the effect of sexuality education among household and adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour in Ibadan north local government area of Oyo State. It was discovered from real life observation and past research works done by various scholars that sex education was not welled managed among parents, care givers, the school system and the community at large. The principal factor of these has led to an immoral behaviour which the results firmly negative to the norms of the society. In controlling the menace, there is urgent need for all stake holders in child moulding to engage in uninterrupted war against risky sexual behaviour to foster human dignity and pride of the society in preventing unwanted pregnancies and contamination of sexually transmitted disease and HIV-Aids among young adolescence.

The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a sample of one hundred and nineteen (119) participants which was randomly selected to examine the studied relationship among the variables; however, the variables in the study were highlighted below. Data were collected using a pilot tested variables asadolescence sexuality risky behaviour scale (α=0.85), sexual abstinence motivation scale (α=0.79), risky type of sexual behaviour scale (α=0.89) and sex education scale (α=0.76). Six research questions hypothesis were answered. Data were analysed using Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, T-test analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis.

The independent variables (sexual abstinence, risky type of sexual behaviour, sex education) hadsignificant relationship with adolescence sexuality risky behaviour; F (3, 116) = 103.692, P<0.001. The independent variables jointly account accounted for 72.3% (Adj.R2= .723) variance in the prediction of risky sexual behaviour of adolescences while the most potent predictor factor was sex education (Beta = .676, t= 10.982, P<0.001). Findings further reveal that female adolescents (mean=57.857) display higher tendency to engage in risk taking behaviour than their male counterpart (mean= 42.571) as divulged in the mean difference in the study.

Based on the findings it was concluded that thorough sensitisation and core orientation towards sex education must be given to all adolescence both at home and in the four walls of the classroom and the community at large. However, it was recommended that parents has to play a pivotal roles in educating their children including the school counsellor by organising a regular educational programmes that will led to a positive turn around in avoidance of sexually risky behaviour.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Access to effective, broadly based sexual health education is an important contributing factor to the health and well-being of youths’ (Health Canada, 2003; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, 2004). There has been considerable concern in many countries in the world about the sexual and reproductive health of young people, in part because of their perceived increased vulnerability to the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Knode-lule et al., 1997; Preston-Whyte, 1994; Scommegna, 1996; Twa-Twa et al., 1997), the potential risks to their health due to early pregnancy (AbouZahr & Royston, 1991; Barreto et al., 1992; United Nations, 1989), and the negative consequences of early and non-marital childbearing to young people’s life prospects (Hayes, 1987). School-based programes are an essential avenue for providing sexual health education to young people in the society.

However, sex education is considered as a top priority for the educators, public health professionals, and others who are committed to providing high quality sexual health education in schools and other community settings are often asked to explain the rationale, philosophy, and content of providing existing sexual health education programs to avert risky behaviour later in their lifetime. For instance, Isiugo-Abanihe (1994) has shown that more than 38 % of female adolescents in Nigeria, age 15 to 24 years, had initiated sexually activity in 1990, with a mean age of sexual debut less than 17 years. Nearly 60 % of those who had initiated sex had affairs within four weeks of the survey.

Also, the growing concern about the reproductive health of adolescents and young adults derives in part from the sheer size of their cohorts. According to estimates by the National Population Commission (NPC, 1998), about 84 million Nigerians are currently under age 25, or about 63 % of the population; nearly 59 million or about 44 % are under age 15 yet, due to lack of prompt sexual education, many adolescence life had been sent to early grave due to risky sexual behaviour as a result of peer pressure and other factors. The Guidelines of such education are based on the principle that sexual health education should be accessible to all people and that it should be provided in an age appropriate, culturally sensitive manner that is respectful of an individual’s right to make informed choices about sexual and reproductive health.

In addition, adolescents often look to their families as one of several preferred sources of sexual health information (King et al., 1988; McKay & Holowaty, 1997). However, most young people agree that sexual health education should be a shared responsibility between parents and schools (Byers, Sears, Voyer, et al., 2003a; Byers, Sears, Voyer, et al., 2003b). An evidence-based approach combined with a respect for democratic values offers a strong foundation for the development and implementation of high quality sexual health education programs in our schools (McKay, 1998).

Accordingly, the period of adolescence occupies a unique stage in every person’s life. It is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescence has been described as a stage among human beings where a lot of physiological as well as anatomical changes take place resulting in reproductive maturity in the adolescents, (Kirby, 1999). Many adolescents manage this transformation successfully while others experience major stress and find themselves engaging in behaviours such as sexual experimentation, exploration and promiscuity etc. that place their well-being at risk (Adegoke, 2003). Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). A primary source of risk of HIV/AIDS for instance is unprotected /indiscriminate sexual activity (Remafedi, 1999). By the time they are 18, most adolescents in Nigeria are sexually active).

Furthermore, despite increased sexual knowledge, adolescents in Nigeria are poor contraceptive users (Abogunrin, 1999). They are less likely than adults to consistently use condoms or other methods of protection that could reduce their chances of infection (Esere, 2006). Neither specific teaching about contraception nor improving the contraceptive service consistently increases effective contraceptive use by young teenagers. Adolescents having sexual intercourse before age 16 are more likely to take risks by (Kirby, 1999). They have more sexual partners during their lifetime and more partners per year and they start sexual activity earlier in new relationships than those who become sexually active after age 16. (Johnson, 1999)

In Nigeria today, sex education is yet to be incorporated into the curricula of secondary school education by Esu , 1999. Many Nigerians are reluctant to discuss sexuality and sexual health openly. In most African countries, Nigeria in particular, matters relating to sex and sexuality are usually shrouded in secrecy by Esere, 2006. Neither the adolescent boy nor girl has free access to the information he or she needs on sexuality. Questions bordering on sexuality and girl-boy relationships are usually hushed up and regarded as taboos. The consequence of this action is that Nigerian adolescent boys and girls find answers to sex-related questions on their own, often from questionable sources that are likely to give them wrong information, making them more likely to indulge in reckless and unguarded sexual experimentation. Some adolescents lack adequate communication and assertiveness skills to negotiate safer sex. (Abogunrin, 2006). Some feel unable to refuse unwanted sex or feel compelled to exchange sex for money. Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. (Nwabuisi, 2004)

Moreover, by training teachers to impart the decision-making skills that young people need to rely on, teachers can become not only trusted sources of information but also agents of change. In countries where large numbers of young people are not enrolled in secondary school, sex education programmes and those aimed at reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections can also be implemented in clinics and community based settings that attract young people. Clinics tend to attract young people that are at higher risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection or becoming pregnant. Young people visiting clinics are typically more aware of the risk of becoming infected and may be more ready to benefit from sound information, advice and behavioural training in decision-making skills.

Finally, as the world becomes more interconnected than ever before, young people the world over are requesting credible and accessible information on sexuality and reproductive health. They want to have their many questions and concerns about sexuality addressed. They need information not only about physiology and a better understanding of the norms that society has set for sexual behaviour, but they also need to acquire the skills necessary to develop healthy relationships and engage in responsible decision-making about sex, especially during adolescence when their emotional development accelerates. In this study, focus is based on the effect of sexuality education among household and adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour in Ibadan north environs.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Adolescents problems are rooted to the background of their upbringing which is the main causes of the risky sexual behaviour which they exhibits within and outsides the society. While all these? The first contact of adolescence early life is the family, but the family has failed to do justice to the concept of sex education, which has led to numerous future challenges of most promising youths today. Unexposed reality was wrongly presented by peer pressures which visually lead to the sexually risky behaviour of the adolescences.

Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in every society and adolescents have been victims of sexual risky behaviours across several communities in Ibadan especially within and around the various secondary schools and universities Ibadan, Oyo state. The implication of household women engaging in risky sexual behaviour is beyond infections or contacting HIV and other form of STDs which it may lead to the death of parents and this could directly affect the survival of their children while leaving the children as orphans or as street beggar which can expose the children to the dangers that can even ruin their life completely.

The failures of sex education prompted wrong signal which is the risky behaviour exhibited both the household women and the adolescence which affect their reproductive system later in life. Apart from unwanted pregnancy resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse as an under-age parents, as a result of semi-formal or lack of sex education through the protracted stage of any of the deadly attracted diseases among the subject in question which cannot be overemphasized due to complete lack of treatment to expunge all forms of diseases in the body of the adolescence.

However, having assessed the whole lots of predicaments experienced by adolescence within the community of the great city of Ibadan, it is worth of necessity to educate the people around the sine through the process of enlightened the youth with the great borden in me to share this core values of life which triggered my burning desire to embark on this theme to be studied.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of sexuality education on risky sexual behaviour among households and adolescents in secondary schools. This research work is being carried out in order to accomplish the following specific objectives. These include:

  1. To find out the types and the risky sexual behaviour among households and secondary school adolescents in Ibadan.
  2. To determine the level of sexual abstinence among adolescents in secondary schools.
  3. To investigate if sexuality education has any significant impact to households and adolescents in secondary schools.
  4. To access if there would be any significant gender difference among households and adolescents risky sexual behaviour in Ibadan.

1.4 Significance of the study

This study will shed more light on the expected benefits of sexuality education on risky sexual behaviour among adolescents and household in Ibadan north local government area.

  1. It helps the adolescence and the household women to avoid negative health consequences by protecting themselves against sexually risky behaviour in the society.
  2. It aids the community to use the weapon of communication about sexuality on sexual health issues to the adolescence and household women as one of the core values which can uphold the inheritance of the community through these agents such as parents, friends, intimate partners and social media like radio, television etc about sexuality.
  3. Comprehensive sexual health education teaches abstinence as the only 100 percent effective method of preventing HIV Aids, STIs, and unintended pregnancy and as a valid choice which everyone has the right choice to make among the adolescences.
  4. This study is focusing on a comprehensive sexual health education that teaches not only the basics of puberty and development of the students, but also instils in young people that they have the right to decide on what behaviours they should engage in and to say no to unwanted risky sexual activity and finally;
  5. The public health authorities, social workers and policy makers would greatly benefit from this study which would stands out as a major pointer for effective control and strategies for tackling sexually transmitted diseases.

1.5 Scope of the study

The study will investigate the effect of sexuality education on risky sexual behaviour among adolescents and households in Ibadan north local government area of Oyo state. The study will be limited to the range of twenty (20) selected households’ women and ninety (100) in- school adolescents within (S.S. 1-3) in the study area.


1.6 Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms was defined operationally as were used in the study:

Sexuality education:

It refers to the knowledge of participants with regard to sexual activities including safe and protected sexual intercourse, knowledge of STDs, and unprotected sexual intercourse.

Household:

This refers to every adult who is married either man or woman that merit participation in this study.

Risky Sexual Behaviour:

Risky sexual behaviour refers to the kind of behaviour that can result in negative consequences for a person’s health or a negative effect arising from one’s attitude towards sexual activities such risky behaviours include alcohol consumption (heavy drinking), smoking, illegal drug use, unsafe sexual practices, multiple sex partner, illegal behaviours and dangerous driving.

Adolescents:

Refers to students between the ages ranges of 13 years old to 19 years old in secondary schools.

Gender:

Refers to masculinity and femininity. It is dichotomized into male and female sex.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of sexuality education among household and adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State. In order to accomplish this purpose, four specific objectives were formulated. Literature pertinent to the study was reviewed. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 345 in-school adolescents and selected women in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Oyo State. The instrument used for data collection in the study was Questionnaire.

With the help of the researcher assistants, the researcher distributed a total of 345 copies of the questionnaire to in-school adolescents and some women (urban=257 (74.5%), rural=88 (25.5%). There was 100 per-cent returned valid copies which were used for the analysis. Findings from the study are summarized below:

  1. Fifty three per cent (53.0%) of the respondents were males, females (47.0%), 18.6 per cent aged between 11-13 years, 14-16 years (20.9%), 60.0 per cent aged between 17-19years, 82.3 per cent were Christians, Islam (15.7%), traditional worshippers (2.0%), 74.5 per cent lived in urban area, rural (25.5%), 25.5 per cent were in senior secondary school 2 and 74.5 per cent were in senior secondary school 3.
  2. Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in risky sexual behaviour always (2.78%), sometimes (5.35%), rarely (2.87%) and never (84.48%); always (1.8%), sometimes (5.6%), rarely (4.0%) and never (88.5%); Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in possession of multiple sexual partners always (2.0%), sometimes (5.4%), rarely (4.2%) and never (88.4%); Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in having sex under intoxication always (1.1%), sometimes (5.7%), rarely (2.8%) and never (90.4%); Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in unprotected sex always (7.8%), sometimes (6.4%), rarely (3.3%) and never (5.5%); Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in transactional/survival sex always (1.9%), sometimes (3.7%), rarely (2.7%) and never (91.5%); Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in oral sex always (2.9%), sometimes (7’2%), rarely (1.7%) and never (88.1%); Findings on proportions of in school adolescents who engaged in anal sex always (2.0%), sometimes (3.5%), rarely (1.4%) and never (93.0%).
  3. There was relationship between age and risky sexual behaviours among adolescents.
  4. There was no relationship between gender and risky sexual behaviours of in-school adolescents.
  5. There was relationship between location and risky sexual behaviours of adolescents.
  6. There was no significant relationship between religion and risky sexual behaviours.
  7. There was no significant relationship between level of education and risky sexual behaviours of adolescents.
  8. Age was a significant determinant of risky sexual behaviour among adolescents
  9. Gender was not a significant determinant of risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents.
  10. Location was a significant determinant of risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents.
  11. Level of sexual abstinence among adolescent in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state was high.
  12. Sexuality education has a significant impact to households and adolescents in secondary schools.

5.2 Conclusions

The study found out that proportion of in-school adolescents engaged in some forms of risky sexual behaviours such as early sexual initiation, possession of multiple sexual partners, having sex under intoxication among others. Age and location were found to be related to in-school adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour. There were no relationship between risky sexual behaviours and in-school adolescents’ gender, religion and level of education.
Age was a significant determinant of in-school adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour while gender was not a significant determinant of risky sexual behaviour among in-school adolescents. The study concluded that sexuality education has a significant impact on households and adolescents in secondary schools and that location did significantly determine in-school adolescents’ risky sexual behaviour while religion and level of education did not determine in-school adolescents’ risky sexual behaviours.


5.3 Recommendations

Following the findings, discussion and conclusion of the study, the below recommendations were made:

  1. The Federal Ministries of Health and Education in collaboration with Oyo State Ministries of Health and Education should utilized the findings of this research work when drafting the national adolescents ‘ health policy to capitalize on sexual risk behaviour of adolescents as target.
  2. Curriculum planners should consider the findings of this study when planning and developing curriculum for both JSSS and SSS putting into consideration the variance in age, gender, location, religion and level of education of adolescents. This can be done through organization of conference/meetings involving stakeholders from MOH and MOE, community members, school authorities, health educators, public health educators, school reproductive/sexuality education teachers, business people, students/adolescents, data/findings from this study, All the ideas/suggestions will be developed by curriculum planners and developers based on the demographic variables of the in-school adolescents.
  3. Reproductive health /sexuality education should be incorporated into secondary school curriculum/syllabus where it has not been done. School authorities and teachers should develop comprehensive lesson plan/notes on reproductive health/sexuality education base on differences in adolescents’ age, gender, location, religion and educational level.
  4. Parents in collaboration with teachers should ensure to develop cordial and close relationship with adolescents through cohesive monitoring, supervision and also guiding them against bad peer groups as models.
  5. Parents should endeavour to find out sources, caution and discourage at pre-school age of 5 years because at this stage, it is believed that children are curious and so ask a lot of funny questions especially from their mothers adolescents through rejection of materials and (or) gifts into the house.
  6. In order to curtail or reduce early sexual initiation among adolescents, parents should begin early to teach or orientate their children on reproductive health matters.
  7. There is need for religious bodies, institutions or organizations to set rules to regulate adolescents’ risky sexual behaviours through moral order, sanctions and punishments by deities for deviance for their adolescents in order to control risky sexual behaviours
  8. Thorough sensitisation and core orientation towards sex education must be given to all adolescence both at home and in the four walls of the classroom and the community at large. Parents has to play a pivotal roles in educating their children including the school counsellor by organising a regular educational programmes that will led to a positive turn around in avoidance of sexually risky behaviour.

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