The Effect Of Science Practicals On Effective Teaching And Learning Of Junior Secondary School Sciences

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The Effect Of Science Practicals On Effective Teaching And Learning Of Junior Secondary School Sciences


Abstract


This project work was carried out to determine the effect of science practical on effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. The long held notion is that practical offer students a more realistic experience in sciences but lunette (2008), reported that some educators have begun to question seriously the effectiveness and the role of laboratory work. They opined that practical method of teaching is not self- evident as it once seemed. The result obtained from the sample schools, showed that integrated and computer science practical have positive effect on academic performance of students. In all cases that was tested, practical methods of teaching integrated and computer were found to be superior to traditional theoretical methods.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Science is a means of solving human problems (Abimbola 2010). He further emphasized that the progress of science is not marked only by accumulation of facts but by the emergence of scientific methods, translated in practical terms, into technology. (Onyeso et al 2009) posits that the ultimate way of teaching and learning sciences is by evidence based, practical methods. Sciences in this regards is with particular reference to integrated and computer sciences.

Computer education is a field of study that consists of the teaching and learning of computer. Okolo (2007) had defined computer as an electronic gadget or device that accepts to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set of instructions. On the other hand, Perez (2002) described integrated science as an encomposing all the fundamental sciences, package into relevant sets of instruction for building foundations of sciences in Junior Secondary School Students.

Practicals can be described as the aspect of education which is concerned with the incorporation of the relevant technical skill in a particular field of study. It is the method of education, training or retraining which is directed towards developing the learner to become productive in that area of study as well as equipping the students with in-dept knowledge of that area of study. It is therefore the bedrock in which a country’s socio economic, technological and cultural advancement must be built.

We value science (as a product, as an enquiry process and as a social institution) because of its success in explaining phenomena in elegant and parsimonious ways, which are intellectually satisfying and which often facilitate the purposeful manipulation of objects materials and events. The aims of science practicals might then be summarized (Encyclopadia ikipodia 2009) as:

  1. To help students to gain an understanding of as much of the established body of scientific knowledge as an appropriate to their needs, interests and capacities.
  2. To develop student’s understanding of the methods by which this knowledge has been gained and our grounds for confidence in it (knowledge about science).
  3. To improving student’s scientific knowledge as theories are integrated into practice. The idea is that students are taught out to carry their on scientific enquiries and so acquire scientific knowledge for themselves. Clearly practical work has a central role in any such vision of science education.

The primary objectives of integrated science are as follows:

  1. It provides students with the ability to participate in activities designed to arrest their interest and lay solid foundation for their study of science of higher levels of education.
  2. To stimulate creativity and reflexive thinking
  3. To creative on attitude to life.
  4. To continue the process of concepts building for acquiring a science.

During the ministerial council meeting of the National Council on Education in 1987, the federal government decided to introduce Computer Education into the nations secondary schools system with the following objectives:

  1. Bring about a computer literate society in Nigeria.
  2. Enables the present children to appreciate and use the computer in various aspects of life.
  3. Enable the present children meet up with the requirement of employment as every office is getting computerized.

In its previous edition WAEC syllabus 2000 stated that great importance should be attached to experimental work and use of control experimental. It was recommended that, whenever possible, through out the whole courses. Candidates should be taught with practical application of what is being studied.

From the foregoing, we can understand that science practical lesson is most essential for effective teaching and learning of integrated and computer science in junior secondary school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Science as a core subject in the junior secondary school is designed to equip students with the knowledge of relevant concepts and scientific skills. The main center for the study of sciences in junior secondary schools is science laboratory. Anionu (2005) observed that most science laboratories exist in names only. They are generally used as ordinary classroom. The reason is due to lack of facilities for science laboratory in junior secondary school or in school in general. Similarly Offiah (2003) noted that many students perform poorly in practical related subject not only because of lack of laboratory equipment and materials but also poor usage of laboratory equipment and materials but also poor usage of laboratory by the science teachers.

This study therefore intent to examine the effect of science practicals in effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

Based on the background and problems of this study, the main purpose underlying the project is to investigate the effects of sciences practicals on the effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences in Enugu North Local Government Area. The study specifically seeks to determine;

  1. The effects of sciences practicals on students achievement in integrated and computer science examination.
  2. The presence or the availability of science laboratories basically the integrated and computer sciences laboratories in the junior secondary school.
  3. The interest of students in participating in the science practicals at their junior secondary level.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: There are no effects of sciences practical on student’s achievement in integrated and computer science examination
    H1: There are effects of sciences practical on student’s achievement in integrated and computer science examination
  2. H02: There is no interest of students in participating in the science practical at their junior secondary level
  3. H2: There is no interest of students in participating in the science practical at
    their junior secondary level

1.5 Significance of the Study

The practical activities in sciences are designed to help students acquired basic scientific skills and improve their performance and achievement as well.

The study tends to uncover the benefits of practicals to the; students, parents, teachers, government and the entire society.

If the result of this research is properly utilized: it will,

  1. Promote the ideas that science is both a product and progress in students by arousing their interest in practical work;
  2. Motivate the parents to provide basic requirement of practical lessons for their children;
  3. Convince the science teachers that practical lesson are mostly essential tools for effective teaching and learning of integrated and computer sciences;
  4. Make the government, through the ministry of education to realized the need for provision of science equipment to schools and posting of qualified science teachers to secondary schools, it is not the issue of jack of all trade master of non. Teaching has attained professionalism and specialization;
  5. Help the Nigeria society in their request for improved technology and industrialization.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this study is targeted on the junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State (A case study of integrated and computer sciences). The scope is also delimited on JSS II integrated and computer science students. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Science:

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and one of the world’s top academic journals.

Practical:

An examination or lesson in which theories and procedures learned are applied to the actual making or doing of something

Teaching:

Definition of teaching for English Language Learners. : the job or profession of a teacher. : Something that is taught: the ideas and beliefs that are taught by a person, religion, etc

Learning:

Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.

Junior Secondary School:

Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take. Students spend six years in Secondary School that is 3 years of JSS (Junior Secondary School), and 3 years of SSS (Senior Secondary School). By Senior


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of science practical on effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of the effect of science practical on effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences


5.2 Summary

This study was on the effect of science practical on effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences. Three objectives were raised which included:The effects of sciences practical on student’s achievement in integrated and computer science examination, the presence or the availability of science laboratories basically the integrated and computer sciences laboratories in the junior secondary school, the interest of students in participating in the science practical at their junior secondary level. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff ofselected secondary schools in Enugu North local government of Enugu State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals,vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study it was concluded that Practical Investigation laboratory approach enhances scientific creativity amongst secondary school biology students. However in order to achieve this students should be given an opportunity to carry out scientific investigation on a given problem rather than being given a list of procedures to follow in solving the problem. This would enable them to explore several ways of getting a solution consequently enhancing their flexibility in reasoning. Similarly questions that require students to site sources of errors and control variables in an experiment should be included in the examinations so as to promote sensitivity aspect of scientific creativity. The learning environment should also be designed in such a way that it motivates the learners, it arouses their interests and enables them to participate in learning activities. This is because this and previous studies have indicated that the school environment affect the degree of students’ scientific creativity. Lastly the learners should be equipped with the correct and relevant knowledge of the subject matter.


5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made based on the above findings

  1. Provisions of the necessary infrastructures and facilities that will motivate teaching and learning of basic science become necessary.
  2. Teachers should relate their lesson to real life situation so as to reduce the abstract nature of science subjects.
  3. The government should motivate science teachers and reward hardworking teachers and students with adequate packages.
  4. The appropriate bodies should monitor teachers and students in order to leave up to their expectations and be alive with their responsibilities as supervision of instructions will reduce laxity among science teachers and their students.

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