Effect Of School’s Factors On Students’ Academic Performance In English Language In Ewekoro LGA, Ogun State

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Effect Of School’s Factors On Students’ Academic Performance In English Language In Ewekoro LGA, Ogun State


Abstract


School factors are the school human and physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of school factor on students’ academic performance in English language. This was also examined using the students. Research questions were generated for the study and hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study is a descriptive survey type. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of 100 respondents for the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data for the study while the data were analysed using simple percentage. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Based on the result of the data analyzed, it was revealed that school factors have major effect on students’ academic performance. There exist a significance relationship between school factors and students’ academic performance in English language; there was a significant relationship between school factors and academic performance of both male and females students. Hence, it was recommended that the class size should be minimized to an average of ratio 1:35. School physical facilities and qualified teachers of English should be provided in schools for effective students learning.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • Background to the Study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Purpose of the Study
  • Research Questions
  • Research Hypotheses
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • Status of English Language in JSS Curriculum
  • Instructional, infrastructural materials and Students Academic Performance
  • Teachers of English and Students Academic Performance
  • Trends of students performance in English JSSCE Examination
  • Appraisal of Literature of Reviewed

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • Research Design
  • Population, Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • Instrumentation
  • Procedure for Data collection
  • Data Analysis Techniques

Chapter Four:

Data Analyses and Results

  • Hypotheses Testing/Research question
  • Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Discussion on Findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Suggestions for Further Study
  • References
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 11

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined developmental strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources with which she is endowed. These resources include the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the furniture, the building and physical equipment and recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000).

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2001). It has also been observed that adequate attention is now being paid to school plant planning throughout the world’s educational systems including Nigeria. Educational facilities such as school plant have been repeatedly found to have positive relationship with standard and quality of educational system (Ojedele, 2000).

School factors, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc, are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000). Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance.

More so, school factors such as instructional spaces, infrastructural spaces and the teachers are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

According to Williams, Persaud and Turner (2008), and Marsden (2005), safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), school facilities (accessories) are significantly related to students’ academic performance in elementary schools. The researchers also affirmed that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students` academic performance.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students and the learning process. Poor lightening, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 and Lyons, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.

Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behaviour by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, aparthy, create a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lower teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect on the academic performance of students.

Studies have investigated the relationship between school factors and students academic achievement. To complement these studies, the present research will examine the status of English Language in general, and the aforementioned areas of school factors as they affect student’s academic performance in Nigerian schools
The place of Junior Secondary school (JSS) in the country’s educational ladder is the Upper Basic Curriculum which covers JSS 1-3. This change came into being as a result of Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme a nine (9) years basic educational programme, right from primary to junior secondary with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and provide education for all. UBE was launched and executed by the Federal Government of Nigeria.
Ogun state is a state in South-west Nigeria, established in the year 1976. It borders Lagos state to the south, Oyo and Osun states to the north, Ondo state to the east and the Republic of Benin to the West. Abeokuta is the capital and the largest city in the state. Ogun state has twenty (20) local Government Areas Out of these 20 Local Government Areas (LGA’s)

The study area, Ewekoro Local Government Area first came into existence on 22nd of May, 1981 and it was later merged with Ifo Local Government in the year 1989 by the Federal military Government. On the 16th of December 1996 the Local Government was fully restored as an autonomous local government. The Local Government is bounded by Yewa south in the west Ifo in the south. Abeokuta North and Obafemi Owode in the north and east respectively. It has a land area of 63.5Square with an estimated population of about 55,156 people based on the 2006 population census.


Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school factors on students’ academic performance, Oluchukwu (2000) asserted that school factors are essential aspect of educational planning. He went further to explain that unless schools are well situated, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, effective teaching and learning may not take place.

The study by Ajayi (2007) maintained that a high level of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. They also emphasized that structural effectiveness, proper ventilation and well sited instructional space lead to successful teaching and learning process in Nigeria secondary schools. However, little is known specifically on the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance in English language in a cosmopolitan centre like Ogun State, which is the focus of this study.


Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance in English language. Specifically the study:

  1. Described the general school factors that influence students academic performance;
  2. Examined the relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language.

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in the study

  1. What are the school factors that influence students’ academic performance?
  2. Is there any significance relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language?
  3. Is there any significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of male students?
  4. Is there any significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of female students?

Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were tested in the study:

  • Ho1: There is no significance relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language
  • Ho2: There is no significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of male students
  • Ho3: There is no significance relationship between school factors and academic performance of female students

Significance of the Study

The importance and relevance of this study cannot be over emphasized. It is hoped that this study will provide useful information for parents, students, schools and educational policy makers on how the various school factors can help students in achieving its goal.

On the part of the parents, this study will equip them with information on how they can enhance their children academic performance by providing for them the necessary school materials needed to boost their learning, most especially in English language. Students who are directly affected will also find this study useful by knowning the importance of teachers and instructional materials in teaching-learning process as it relates to their mastery of English language.

To the schools, the result of this study will help them in providing for adequate instructional materials that will make learning easy for their students. Education policy makers will benefit from this study by being more informed to make implementable educational policies.


Scope of the Study

This research work focused on the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance in English language among Secondary schools in Ewekoro Local Government Area, Ogun State. It covers all the public secondary schools students in Ewekoro Local Government Area of Ogun State. However, three public secondary schools were selected.

The selection of sample for this research work was done using simple random sampling technique in which the researcher used dip-hand method to select the schools for the study. The instrument used was questionnaire. The statistical instrument used in data analysis was percentage and Pearson Product Moment Correlation.


Operational Definition of Terms

School Factors:

The total elements which make up a school which include the school management, staff of the school, and the school building.

Academic Performance:

Outcome of a test on students’ attainment in English language indicated by test scores.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter focuses on the discussion of the major findings of this study, conclusions from the findings and recommendations. Some suggestions are also made to encourage further studies in related areas. The study was on the effect of school factors on students’ academic performance in English language.


Discussion of the Findings

The findings from this study revealed that school factors have major effect on students’ academic performance. From the result, it was found that most of the school factors influence students’ academic performance. The findings from this study confirm earlier studies such as Lawal (2005), Elumelu (2009) and Subashini and Balakrishnan (2013) which revealed that school factors influence students’ academic performance in English Language. This result is somewhat expected due to academic activities that require a significant amount of reading time in order to succeed academically. However, the amount of time spent on students academic should be attributed to relevance of the school facilities.

Chen’s (2002) and Gao’s (2007) studies corroborate the finding of this study. The study revealed that the decline in writing performance is due mainly to over-emphasis on linguistic accuracy rather than on communicative proficiency which positive extensive reading habit would have promoted.

The significant relationship between school factors and students academic performance in English language was also revealed based on the result of the study. The finding of this present study seems to agree with those of Gabriel (1997), Idorenyin and Monday (2008), Omodara (2010) and Fakeye (2010) who found that males are not easily influenced by the factors associated with their schools. The finding however negated those of Umo (2001) and Ugoeze (2006) who reported that gender was not a relevant factor that should be reckoned with in predicting academic achievement. That is, the students’ mean achievement did not differ as a result of gender. In view of the inconclusiveness of the findings from these studies, more studies are required to elucidate the relationship between male students’ extensive reading habit and their writing performance.

There was a significant relationship between school factors and academic performance of male students and there was a significant relationship between school factors and academic performance of female students were also revealed in the study. Olajide’s (1991) and Abe’s (1995) seperately showed that girls possessed more favourable reading attitudes and performed better than boys with regard to recreational and academic reading. Nor Shahriza and Amelia (2007) found that the students’ gender influenced their performance. They found that male students spend a significant amount of time reading irrespective of the factors associated to the schools. Also, the result indicates that the students are reading for leisure and not for educational purposes.


Conclusion

This study found a relationship between school factors and the academic performance of students in relation to some predictor variables like gender. The results showed that school factors have a major effect on the students’ perform. Also from the study, it was discovered that there was a significance relationship between school factors and students academic performance based on gender.


Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusion from this study, the following recommendations were put forward to relevant stakeholders – curriculum designers, education authorities, teachers, parents, students and future researchers. The following are hereby recommended based on the findings of the study:

School factors like qualified teachers of English in the right number, conducive classroom, and motivating school environment and sufficient instructional materials should be provided by the Government and school authorities. This, well taken care of, would stimulate greatly students performance in English language.

The present arrangement complicates the teaching of English language as a result of overcrowding in the classes. So, proactive measures should be put in place to revolutionize teacher/students ratio to 1:35 so as to genuinely stimulate higher performance in students in their study of English language.

It is recommended that teachers of English should be encouraged by way of sponsorship and allowed to experience in-service further training like attendance of seminars and workshops to update them on contemporary approach to English language teaching. This is necessary to checkmate the current overreliance on pre- service training which are mostly theoretically and largely predictive.

It is very imperative for Government in her schools and proprietors of schools to urgently employ more teachers of English language and add incentives for those on the job to challenge higher commitment and creativity.


Suggestions for Further Research

The study centred on the effect of school factors and the academic performance of students. Based on the findings of this study, further researchers could carryout future studies on the effect of reading comprehension or summary writing skill of secondary school students. In view of the inclusiveness of some of the findings in this study, it is also suggested that more researches may be conducted in this area.


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