Effect Of School Dropout Rate On Students’ Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students

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Effect Of School Dropout Rate On Students’ Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effect of school dropout rate on students’ academic performance of junior secondary school students using selected junior secondary schools in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State as case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of students and teachers of selected schools in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between survey strategy and effective product feedback. The study also revealed that school dropout rate has a negative effect on academic performance of junior secondary school students. Furthermore, the study revealed that there is a relationship between absenteeism and student’s academic achievement. Therefore, guidance/Counselors in schools should be more alive to their responsibilities, in particular, sensitize the students regularly, on the importance of education, as well as the consequences of dropout. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

School dropout in its simplest meaning is the untimely withdrawal from school. These students who withdraw from school prematurely end up no obtaining any certificate of graduation. The issue of school dropout is a global problem confronting the education industry round the world. Researchers like, Mohsin, Aslam and Bashir (2004); De Cos (2005); Bridgeland, Dilulio, and Morison (2006), and Oghuvbu (2008) have since buttressed this fact.

The issue of school dropout in Nigeria has been with us for a very long time. Fafunwa (1983) noted that dropout is one of the most serious problems that have continued to bedevil our educational system since independence in 1960 from the colonial administration. Even before our independence, the problem of dropout has already established its grip on our educational system. This can be buttressed with the remark made by Nuffied foundations in 1953 that in the West coast of Africa, a considerable proportion of student’s dropout of school each year.

Dropout among the student was a common phenomenon in all the secondary schools in Education district IV but at varying degrees the dropout rate was higher among boys (Male) than girls (female). As such, the society-based dropout factors were discovered to have had the greatest influence on students’ dropout of school within the period (Okedara, 2011).

However, it is uninteresting to observe that the government that has invested a large chunk of its limited resources to increase the supply of education especially at the secondary school level, allows any child who want to drop-out of school to do so at will (Nwakobi, 2010).

The National Policy on Education (2010) stated that the school system will be on the 6-3-3-4 plan. It opined that the system will be flexible enough to accommodate both formal and non- formal education and will allow leaving and coming back to the school system. This is because the curriculum is diversified to cater for those who wish to leave the school system at certain levels and those who wish to come back to school to complete their course of study.

Hence, the rate at which secondary school students are observed to be leaving school at will to engage in diverse socio- economic activities calls for the review of the policy statement (Adesina, 2010). This is with a view to saving scarce productive resources which would have been put into alternative use from being wasted on those who will not like to complete their school programmes.

These are the school dropouts, who this study intends to establish the rate, and magnitudes of a=occurrence in secondary schools in Education district IV. It is the opinion of most parents and school administrators that boys withdraw from schools go into buying and selling while the girls migrate into urban centres in search of daily bread (Callaway, 2011).

Nwadiani (2012) is not happy with parents whose preference to menial jobs brings quick monies to solve domestic problems. It is also important to note that besides students dropping from the system, there are those who are observed to dropout within the system. These are students that wilfully leave one public school and enter or from one public school to a private school (Nwakobi, 2013).

What is not clear however is the rate, magnitude, and factors responsible for students drop-out in the school system. The problem is on the rate and magnitude of dropout among secondary school students in Education district IV and the factors responsible for this ugly trend in the school system. The study will therefore strive to find answers to the following questions to clarify the above issues.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Education, which is the right of every child, is a mirage in the lives of some Nigeria students because some of the girls are forced into early marriage as from age 12 while the boys are force to go the farm by their parent (Ocholi, 2002). Ocholi further observed that the regression in basic education is reflected in the fact that the net enrolment rate is very low, with a high dropout rate. Poverty has been known to force most parents to withdraw their children from school.

UNICEF (2004) report indicates that some 121 million children are out of school for various and 65 million of them are girls. With the educational rights of 65 million girls unmet, something should be done to ensure that they complete their education. The same report indicates that Nigeria is one of the 25 developing countries of the world with low enrolment rates for girls, gender gap of more than 10% in primary education and with more than 1 million girls out of school.

This is a problem that requires emergency action if the nation is to advance technically, considering the multiplier and intergenerational benefits derivable in education in Nigeria. It is the aim of this study, therefore, to find out the cause and effect of school dropout in Education district IV and, consequently, based on the findings proffer counselling strategies that could be adopted in order to check the incidence of drop out from school in the state.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The study was guided by the following objectives:

  1. To investigate the effect of school dropout rate on academic performance of junior secondary school students.
  2. To explore the effects of parental socio-economic status on school dropout rate.
  3. To examine the relationship between absenteeism and student’s academic achievement.
  4. To find out if difficulties in subject matter is responsible for school dropout rate in Education District IV.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the effect of school dropout rate on academic performance of junior secondary school students?
  2. Does parental socio-economic status have any effect on school dropout rate?
  3. What is the relationship between absenteeism and student’s academic achievement?
  4. To what extent will difficulties in subject matter affect school dropout rate in Education District IV?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following formulated hypotheses will be tested in the course of the study;

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between school dropout rate and academic performance of junior secondary school students.
  2. Ho: There is no significant relationship between parental socio-economic status and school dropout rate.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings in this study are useful in creating awareness to the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and other Education stakeholders on the issue of dropping out in secondary schools in Nigeria, so that the situation can be rectified.

The study will help to raise the level of awareness among parents and guardians on causes and effects of dropping out for their children and in doing so it makes them take measures to ensure that their children stay in school for future benefits of families, their societies and the country as a whole.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will cover the effect of school dropout rate on students’ academic performance of junior secondary school students in Lagos State. It will also cover the solutions to the menace of school drop-out in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Drop out:

This means leaving high school, college, university or another group for practical reasons, necessities, inability, or disillusionment with the system from which the individual in question leaves.

Adult Education Programs:

Adult education programmes focus on training teachers who can provide instruction to adult students looking to advance their general knowledge, gain credentials or seeking a career change or advancement.

Curriculum Development:

Curriculum development is a process of improving the curriculum.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the effect of school dropout rate on students’ academic performance of junior secondary school students using selected junior secondary schools in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the the effect of school dropout rate on students’ academic performance of junior secondary school students using selected junior secondary schools in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at investigate the effect of school dropout rate on academic performance of junior secondary school students, explore the effects of parental socio-economic status on school dropout rate, examine the relationship between absenteeism and student’s academic achievement, and find out if difficulties in subject matter is responsible for school dropout rate in Education District IV.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are students and teachers of selected schools in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. School dropout rate has a negative effect on academic performance of junior secondary school students.
  2. Parental socio-economic status has an effect on school dropout rate.
  3. There is a relationship between absenteeism and student’s academic achievement.
  4. Difficulties in subject matter has a high level of effect on school dropout rate in Education District IV.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Guidance/Counselors in schools should be more alive to their responsibilities, in particular, sensitize the students regularly, on the importance of education, as well as the consequences of dropout.
  2. Various media, such as newspapers, radio and television should be used by government to campaign and enlighten the parents about the importance of education and the evils inherent in dropout.
  3. Educational Administrators, Planners and Policymakers should assist the government in making policies that will prevent dropout syndrome; and increase the allocation to education, to be able to tackle its challenges, that are tied to finance.

Effect Of School Dropout Rate On Students’ Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary School Students


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