Effect Of Scaffolding Instructional Strategy On Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Biology

Biology Education Project Material

Effect Of Scaffolding Instructional Strategy On Academic Achievement Of Secondary School Biology (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology using Ikwuano, Abia State as a case study.. The study was set to ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology, ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology, ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology, ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology, and ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of biology teachers and students in some selected secondary schools in Ikwuano, Abia State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables.While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology. The result of the findings also reveals that scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology. Therefore, it is recommended that having seen that higher mean achievement was recorded through the use of instructional scaffolding strategy,teachers should be encouraged to avail themselves with this method of teaching through training which could be inform of seminars, conferences and workshops organized by STAN, curriculum planners,colleges of educations as well as faculties of education in universities. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is a fundamental human right and the structural key to sustainable development, peace and stability of a nation. In Nigeria, education is perceived as an instrument for achieving national objectives. According to the National Policy in Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004), education is an “instrument per excellence” for the achievement of national development. This explains the huge amount of money government earmarks for education in its annual budget. One major key of Nigeria vision 20-20 is to give students vibrant and modern science education system that will provide meaningful learning. This open opportunity to students to achieve maximum potentials and provide the nation with adequate and competent manpower needs. This goal may be achievable through effective teaching and learning of biology at the grass root level.

Biology is a science which deals with the study of living things (Ramalingam, 2000). Biology makes a huge contribution towards the realization of science objective because its knowledge is applied in many sectors of the economy, including agriculture, industry and medicine without this knowledge a nation will remain underdeveloped (Ugwuadu, 2010; Ibe, 2013; Joda & Abel, 2017). The subject has opened many careers for students such as in food technology, medicine, pharmacy and veterinary medicine. For instance, it has been applied in plant breeding to produce high yielding and disease resistant crops to ensure improved food production for the ever growing population. In industry, it has been applied in beer brewing, bread making and milk processing (UNESCO, 2004; Akpan, 2008; Ibe, 2013). In the same vein, another breakthrough in biology includes: the development of drugs and vaccines for preventing and curing diseases, increased food production, awareness of genetic diseases and their prevention (Ramalingam, 2000). Biology therefore contributes to national development through its various uses to mankind.

Scaffolding Instructional is a teaching strategies geared to support learning when students are first introduced to a new subject. Scaffolding is a form of coaching and support to students as they develop new skills or learn new concepts. This implies that when the learner achieves competence, the support is removed. Scaffolding was used by Jerome Brunerto describe the process in which a learner or novice could be assisted to achieve a task that they may not be able to achieve if unassisted, until they are able to perform the task on their own. This definition was influenced by Vygotsky’s (1978) conception of the zone of proximal development which is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. This implies that learners have learning potential that can be reached with scaffolding provided by tutors, teachers, and peers. Therefore, scaffolding gives students a context, motivation, or foundation to understand new information that will be introduced during the coming lesson. Scaffolding can also be seen as a temporary framework that supports a building under construction. When the structure is strong enough to stand on its own, the scaffolds are removed (Alake & Ogunseemi, 2013, Jibrilla 2017). Ertmer and Cennamo (1995) stated that scaffolds in building cannot completely explain the principle of retreat of support in teaching and learning process. Ertmer and Cennamo further explained that when learning.

Winnips (2001) and Adieze (2016) opined that scaffolding provides support for student learning and then retreating that support may lead to student self-reliant. Casem (2013) and Akani (2015) found that students exposed to scaffolding strategy performed significantly better than their counterparts who were exposed to the traditional method. On the contrary, Ibritam, Udofia and Onweh (2015) found that no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of the students taught using scaffolding instructional strategy and than those taught using the demonstration instructional method in site preparation. Uduafemhe (2015) revealed that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of male and female students when taught Basic Electronics using scaffolding and collaborative teaching approaches. This shows that there are still trend of contradicting findings on the effectiveness of scaffolding strategy to enhance students achievement in secondary schools. Based on the observation the ineffectiveness of the teacher as regards to the students’-centred strategies employed in the classroom interaction with the students may be responsible for the persistent poor academic achievement of biology students’ in Nigeria. Therefore, there is need to investigate the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

There has been the continuous poor academic achievement of students in science subjects generally and Biology in particular. Chief examiner’s report on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement has consistently revealed poor achievement in Biology in senior secondary school certificate examination conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) from 2002-2018 in Nigeria.

The instructional strategy adopted by Biology teachers, inadequate laboratory and Biology instructional materials, large class size among others contribute to students poor academic achievement in Biology (WAEC, 2018; Osuafor & Okonkwo, 2013; Joda & Mohammed, 2017; Joda, 2018). Therefore there is the need to explore other ways of presenting Biology concepts to the students to enhance meaningful learning, academic achievement, and retention of concepts. This calls for the use of learned-centered strategies such as instructional scaffolding, Guided inquiry, Problemsolving, Cooperative Instructional strategy. This study will, therefore, determine the effect of instructional scaffolding strategy on Biology students’ academic achievement and retention of concepts.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology.

The specific objectives is as follows:

  1. Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology
  2. Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology.
  3. Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology.
  4. Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology.
  5. Ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. Does scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology?
  2. Does scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology?
  3. Does scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology?
  4. Does scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology?
  5. Does scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings from this study would help teachers to know the scaffolding instructional strategy of teaching and utilize during teaching and learning process.  This study also educates some teachers who do not know about scaffolding instructional strategy of teaching on the relevance of this method of teaching. The factors that hinders the effectiveness of scaffolding instructional strategy of teaching is also addressed in this study. The findings from this study can also act as template for other research work. This study will enhance the existing body of literature by contemplating the areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholar and student who wishes to conduct further studies in relate field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology. Hence, the study will delimited to some selected secondary school in Ikwuano, Abia State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Scaffolding Instructional Strategy:

This is a form of coaching and support to students as they develop new skills or learn new concepts.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology using Ikwuano, Abia State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of scaffolding instructional strategy on academic achievement of secondary school biology using Ikwuano, Abia State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology, ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology, ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology, ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology, and ascertain whether scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are biology teachers and students in some selected secondary schools in Ikwuano, Abia State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students active participation in the teaching and learning of biology.
  2. Scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students learning prowess and comprehension in the teaching and learning of biology.
  3. Scaffolding instructional strategy facilitates students Skill acquisition in teaching and learning of biology.
  4. Scaffolding instructional strategy improves students retention and learning outcome in the teaching and learning of biology.
  5. Scaffolding instructional strategy enhances students academic performance in biology.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Since the use of instructional scaffolding strategy enhanced students’ achievement in Biology, teachers should employ instructional scaffolding strategy in teaching Biology. However, they need to bear in mind their roles as facilitators in promoting students understanding of Biology concepts rather than the sole source of Biology knowledge while using scaffolding in the classrooms.
  2. Having seen that higher mean achievement was recorded through the use of instructional scaffolding strategy,teachers should be encouraged to avail themselves with this method of teaching through training which could be inform of seminars, conferences and workshops organized by STAN, curriculum planners,colleges of educations as well as faculties of education in universities.
  3. Since constructivism recognizes that students are at different levels of understanding and presents a variety of ideas, teachers especially those teaching Biology should start adopting more student-centered learning activities in their teaching methods like instructional scaffolding strategy. This will enable them to take care of diverse learning abilities of students in their classroomsand subsequently improves their academic achievement in Biology concepts.
  4. The administrators/ policy makers likewise should provide adequate learning environment and necessary support for advancement of teachers on pedagogy (instructional strategies) and software especially in their in service/ preparatory programmes.
  5. Biology teachers should inculcate in their students the attitude of embracing activity oriented and student centered learning approach. This will enable the students’ carryout independent or group work such as assignment and project given to them, which provides room for better cognitive integration and retention of knowledge.
  6. Both teachers and parents should also encourage students’ to be serious with their group project and assignments while studying with instructional scaffolding and other activity oriented methods as this could improve their communication and collaborative skills as well as interpersonal relationship.
  7. Finally, from the result of this study the researcher recommends that examination bodies like WAEC, NECO and so on should adopt appropriate assessment method like formative assessment which will enable them assess students’ achievement or abilities as the effectiveness of any instructional strategy in classroom depends on the framework on which the teacher assessed the students’ academic progress and achievement.

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