The Effect Of End Sars Protest On Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Lagos State
This study was carried out to examine the effect of EndSARS protest on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Lagos State. Specifically, the study examined aimed at ascertaining if the EndSARS protest has any negative effect on Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 230 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings revealed that extortion, abuse and human rights of suspects and extrajudicial killings as well as bad government were among the causes of EndSARS protest in Lagos state.
Furthermore, the findings revealed that killing of protesters by security operatives and military, destruction of private and public properties by protesters, disruption of movement and looting and vandalization of shops were among the negative effects of the EndSARS protest in Lagos state. The findings further revealed that the EndSARS protest has negative effects on SMEs in Lagos state. The study recommend government of Nigeria should come to the realization that SMEs are the life wire that drives any economy and should do their best to make sure that their interests are protected. More so, Government of Nigeria should look into those whose shops were looted and vandalized and put assistance measures in place to restore them for full operation.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Review of concepts
- 2.2 Review of related literature
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the study
- 3.3 Sample size determination
- 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of data collection
- 3.7 Method of data analysis
- 3.8 Validity and Reliability of the study
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Answering Research Questions
- 4.3 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
A protest is practically a demonstration by the public to portray their expression of objection or disapproval towards an idea or action in a polity. This demonstration can take different forms but the apex of it is taking to the street by the populace to publicly express their grievances to the government.
The EndSARS campaign movement dates back to 2017, where Nigerian youths used the hashtag to share their experiences on violence and assault perpetrated by the defunct Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS). However, the movement only revived in early October, 2020 after a video emerged of police officers thought to be members of the SARS unit, allegedly killing an unarmed young man. This prompted Nigerian youths to troop to Twitter, calling on the Federal Government for police reform with the hashtag, #EndSARS, #Endpolicebrutality, and many more. The hashtag trended continuously on Twitter as Nigerian youths aired their pain and experiences online.
A viral message broadcast on social media suggested men of the Special Anti-Robbery Squad SARS had gunned down a Nigerian youth, snatched his car, and sped off with it. As the video spread on Social media, the hashtag #ENDSARS started to garner momentum as more young people demanded an end to the brutal police unit that has for years brutalized young Nigerians.
On the 4th of October, 2020, the Nigerian Police Force, through the Inspector General of Police, announced the ban of SARS members and other Tactical Squads from carrying out routine patrols and other conventional low-risk duties, stop and search duties, checkpoints, mounting of roadblocks, traffic checks, etc with immediate effect.
On 7th October 2020, youths in Lagos State set out for a three-day protest to call for the disbandment of theSpecial Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) unit of the Nigeria Police Force, as part of the push for reforms in the police system to put an end to the extra-judicial activities of the agency. Youths were seen marching to the Force Headquarters at Ikeja, carrying placards with various inscriptions such as “Protect, not exploit”, “Nigeria police stop killing us,” amongst other printed messages (nairametrics.com). This was the start of a 14-day protest that eventually turned violent and hijacked by hoodlums and resulted to the destruction, vandalizing and looting of public and private properties and Small and Medium Enterprises in the country.
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are non-subsidiary, independent firms/organizations which employ fewer numbers of employees. This number varies across countries. According to the European Union (EU), SMEs are categories of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises which employ fewer than 250 persons and which have an annual turnover not exceeding 50 million Euros. In Nigeria, the Central Bank of Nigeria in its monetary policies circular No. 22 of 1988 defined SMEs as enterprises which have an annual turnover not exceeding Five Hundred Thousand Naira (N500,000). For the sake of clarity, the National Policy on Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) has given a clear distinction of enterprises, based on employment and Assets. SMEs are organizations which can best be described through their capital, scope and cost of projects, annual turnover, financial strength and number of employees amongst other things. Such organizations must and can be registered under any part of the Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) in order to do business in Nigeria.
The small and medium scale enterprises sub sector of the economy holds the key to the nation’s quest for economic growth and development. Today, regardless of the level of growth and development the world over, countries continue to embark on viable policies and programs that would create and pave way for the sustainable development of their economies through SMEs development. Numerous studies have shown that small and medium scale enterprises act as a catalyst for growth and development of a national economy.
In recent decades, Nigeria has made it one of the nation’s prime objectives to expand its industrial base through creation, sustenance and growth of small and medium scale enterprises for attainment of economic growth. This has remained the focus of various administrations in Nigeria particularly during the present democratic dispensation. On the other hand, the decay of infrastructural facilities especially power, vandalization and looting has negatively affected the performance, growth and development of SMEs in Nigeria over the years.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the things that accompanies protest of group of people in any polity is the disruption of movement and businesses of people. For people to protest, there are many stimulants to it and one major of them all is for a change to something good and better outside the ill ones that the people have been subjected to. A protest is practically a demonstration by the public to portray their expression of objection or disapproval towards an idea or action in a polity. This demonstration can take different forms but the apex of it is taking to the street by the populace to publicly express their grievances to the government.
The ail treatment of the Nigerian Police Force Unit known as Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) on the citizens of Nigeria and their brutality on youths stimulated the agitation of the youth crying out for the disbandment of SARS which has done no good to youths rather has brought about killings and kidnapping of youths, harassing youths publicly by looking into their phones, checking at the type of car they are driving, the quality of clothes they wear, accessing their emails, facebook pages and whatsapp and profiling them to see whether they are fraudsters or not and as well stealing from them.
The discontent of the youths to the brutality of the SARS metamorphosed into the EndSARS protests in Lagos State which was a peaceful campaign calling on the government to disband the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) unit and as well see to the reforming of the police force. The protest spread like wild fire to other states in Nigeria. It started as a peaceful demonstration by thousands of youths but later turned into chaos after the protests were hijacked by hoodlums and led to mob attacks on security personnel, killings of protesters, vandalizing and looting of public and private properties and shops.
At exactly 11:49am on Tuesday, 20th October 2020, the Lagos State Government announced the imposition of a 24-hours curfew in all parts of the state to curtail the destruction of properties by hoodlums in the name of EndSARS protest in the state. Small and Medium Enterprises were vandalized and looted during the EndSARS protests. This has led to loss of valuable resources and properties belonging to the victims of the looted shops. The blocking of roads by protesters and curfew declared by the state government of Lagos resulted to restriction of movement and has contributed to reduction on level of demand and supply in businesses and high transportation fare.
For this cause, this study seeks to investigate into the effect of the EndSARS protest on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Lagos State.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate into the causes of the EndSARS protest in Lagos State and to find out if the EndSARS protest has any negative effect on Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State.
1.4 Research Question
The following questions guide this research:
- What are the causes of EndSARS protest in Lagos State?
- What are the negative effect of EndSARS protest in Lagos State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis was formulated for this study:
H0: The EndSARS protest does not have any negative effect on Small and Medium Enterprises.
HA: The EndSARS protest has negative effect on Small and Medium Enterprises.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of benefit to the general public, business owners and government to realize the menace the EndSARS protest has caused to Small and Medium Enterprises and the economy. It will also bring to the notice of the government and policy makers the need to hearken to the plea of the protesters and put things right in the country. This study will also serve as a benchmark to researchers and students who may desire to carry out further research on this or related topic.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focus mainly on the effect of EndSARS protest on Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State. The causes of the EndSARS protest and its negative effects on Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State will be examined. This study is limited to some selected SMEs owners in Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Time, funds and availability of materials on this research domain and validating of respondents’ responses to interviews and questionnaires were the major constraints the researcher encountered at the course of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A statement or action expressing disapproval of or objection to something.
Special Anti-Robbery Squad, a unit of Nigerian police force established to deal with crimes associated with robbery, motor vehicle theft, kidnapping, cattle rustling, and firearms.
A social movement and series of mass protests calling on the disbanding of the SARS and against police brutality in Nigeria.
Small and Medium Enterprises are business that maintain revenues, assets or a number of employees below a certain limit.
A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Disturbance or problems which interrupt an event, activity or process.
The action or process of causing so much damage to something.
The act of stealing goods from a place typically during a war or riot.
To deliberately destroy or damage public or private property.
Conclusion And Recommendation
In this study, our focus was to carry out acritical analysis on the effect of EndSARS protest on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Lagos State. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining if the EndSARS protest has any negative effect on Small and Medium Enterprises in Lagos State.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 230 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are owners of SMEs and residents of Lagos State.
The findings revealed that extortion, abuse and human rights of suspects and extrajudicial killings as well as bad government were among the causes of EndSARS protest in Lagos state. The findings also revealed that killing of protesters by security operatives and military, destruction of private and public properties by protesters, disruption of movement and looting and vandalization of shops were among the negative effects of the EndSARS protest in Lagos state. The findings further revealed that the EndSARS protest has negative effects on SMEs in Lagos state.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- The federal government of Nigeria should look into the reasons behind the protest that caused chaos and uproar in all the 36 states in Nigeria and enact laws and structures that bring to an end the brutality of SARS in Nigeria.
- The government of Nigeria should endeavor to orientate the SWAT properly so that they will not be like pouring new wine in an old wine skin. That is the SWAT being another version of SARS.
- The federal of Nigeria should carry out a thorough check on all members of the SWAT force and their academic qualifications to ascertain their eligibility for the work.
- Government of Nigeria should come to the realization that SMEs are the life wire that drives any economy and should do their best to make sure that their interests are protected.
- Government of Nigeria should look into those whose shops were looted and vandalized and put assistance measures in place to restore them for full operation.
The Effect Of End Sars Protest On Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Lagos State
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The Effect Of End Sars Protest On Small And Medium Enterprises (SMEs) In Lagos State
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Frequently Asked Questions
Why do SMEs have limited avenues amid severe financial constraints?
SMEs have limited avenues amid severe financial constraints A key concern for most firms experiencing a sudden drop in sales is liquidity constraints. Both cash inflows and outflows require careful management, without which businesses become
Do SME finance projects contribute to market creation?
Contribution to market creation for SME finance projects assesses the degree to which a project or program induces market systemic changes through catalytic effects. AIMM assessments consider that individual SME projects may be part of a more concerted programmatic WBG approach at the country level.
Are SMEs more exposed to financial shocks than larger firms?
Explain the exposure of SMEs to financial shocks, as one would expect. In contrast, small and medium firms have similar increased exposure to supply shocks and are equally unlikely to experience positive demand shocks or export demand shocks than larger firms.
What are the main challenges facing SMEs?
SMEs have limited avenues amid severe financial constraints A key concern for most firms experiencing a sudden drop in sales is liquidity constraints. Both cash inflows and outflows require careful management, without which businesses become highly susceptible to permanent closure.
How do financial constraints affect start-up profitability across the age distribution?
It them examines the impact of financial constraints on profitability across the age distribution of SMEs. We find that start-ups which report finance as their greatest constraint receive smaller new loans and evidence that financing constraints reduce start-up profitability. We do not find a similar relationship for older SMEs in pre-crisis data.
How vulnerable are MSMEs to supply chain disruptions?
These results imply that most of the MSMEs are vulnerable to financial, supply chain disruptions, and demand constraints aside from other issues. Open in a separate window Fig. 4
How can local authorities help MSMEs to reduce financial burden?
Furthermore, local authorities can also help MSMEs to reduce financial burdens by providing subsidies in business-related utility charges such as electricity, water, natural gas, etc. In addition, the highway toll taxes can also be exempted/reduced to ease the financial burden of transportation enterprises.
How can MSMEs afloat in times of prolonged economic crisis?
Similarly, ILO also suggested that the policy actions must cover the health and safety of workers, economic stimulation, and income and employment support (ILO, 2020a). Therefore, in times of prolonged economic and health crises, the above measures are beneficial for MSMEs to afloat (Fig. 10).
What is the importance of SME in finance?
SME Finance. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are critical for the economic and social development of emerging markets. These businesses generate income and create the majority of jobs—between 70 and 95 percent of new employment opportunities—in emerging economies.
How much do SMEs contribute to employment and value creation?
They provide the main source of employment, accounting for about 70% of jobs on average, and are major contributors to value creation, generating between 50% and 60% of value added on average (Figure 1) (OECD, 2016b). In emerging economies, SMEs contribute up to 45% of total employment and 33% of GDP.
How do SMEs create jobs in emerging economies?
These businesses generate income and create the majority of jobs—between 70 and 95 percent of new employment opportunities—in emerging economies. SMEs are more likely to generate jobs, and at a faster pace, when they have access to finance.
How does access to finance affect SME development in the least developed countries?
Access to finance is disproportionately difficult for smaller firms in the least developed countries (LDCs), with 41 percent of SMEs in LDCs reporting access to finance as a major constraint to their growth and development, by comparison to 30 percent in middle-income countries (MICs) and only 15 percent in high-income countries (HICs).
What are the main implications for SMEs and large firms?
The main implications are the following: (1) Research: results emphasize that SMEs and large firms are both important to support economic activity but, in order to account for the relative effects on SMEs, it is crucial to consider the specific sector that receives the disruption.
What is the difference between finance shock and supply shock?
Finance Shock: % Firms decreased liquidity or cash flow availability Supply Shock: % Firms decrease in supply of inputs (Export) Demand Shock: % Firms decreased direct/indirect exports vs 1 yr ago Demand Shock: % Firms increased monthly sales vs 1 yr ago
Do SMEs matter for economic growth and welfare?
The relative effect of SMEs and large firms on economic growth and welfare remains an open subject of research and debate (Kersten et al. 2017). Firms are tightly interconnected through a network of mechanisms that are involved not only with intersectoral relationships but also with income distribution mechanisms.
How do SMEs compare with large firms on remote work?
Compared to large firms, SMEs are less likely to start or increase remote work by 30 percentage points , effectively exposing more of their workers to health risks . 17 Consequently, SMEs have 7percentage points less of their workforce working remotely.
What are the challenges faced by SMEs in Asia?
Therefore, it is vitally important for Asia’s economic success to have fully functioning support measures for SMEs. However, SMEs face challenges from limited access to finance, lack of databases, low R&D expenditures, undeveloped sales channels, and low levels of financial inclusion, which are some of the reasons behind…
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Supply Management: What are the challenges facing SMEs? The UK’s SMEs are finding themselves having to negotiate both a huge drop in demand and weaker supply chains caused by the coronavirus pandemic, a new report has found.
What are the challenges faced by small and medium sized businesses?
Challenges Facing Small and Medium Sized Businesses. 1 1. Leadership. There is no academic qualification to be a leader of an SME and I suspect if one were offered most entrepreneurs eager to get started … 2 2. Culture. 3 3. Strategy. 4 4. Strategy Execution. 5 5. Building an “A” Team. More items
Why SMEs in Asia need support measures for growth?
It is vitally important for Asia’s economic success to have fully functioning support measures for SMEs. However, SMEs face challenges from limited access to finance, lack of databases, low R&D expenditures, undeveloped sales channels, and low levels of financial inclusion, which are some of the reasons behind the slow growth of SMEs.