Effect Of Retailing Strategy On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Cadbury Nigeria Plc)

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Effect Of Retailing Strategy On Organizational Performance (A Study Of Cadbury Nigeria Plc)


This paper aims to empirically examine the effect of vertical retailing on the performance of integrated firms more specifically, Cadbury Nigeria Plc. This research work is carried out with the objective to provide solution to problems facing manufacturing industries more specifically. The research work was carried out by gathering the relevant information using a field survey. The questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from respondents and statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the data collected and conclusions were arrived at. The study also revealed that there is a relationship between retailing strategy and organization performance. Retailing strategy increases the profitability rate.

Table of Contents

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • References

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Meaning of Retailing
  • 2.2.1 Retail Challenges
  • 2. 3 Vertical Retailing
  • 2.3.1 Drivers of Vertical Retailing
  • 2.3.2 Transaction Cost Theory of Retailing
  • 2.3.3 Empirical Research of Transaction Cost Theory.
  • 2.3.4 Transaction Cost Motivation in the Empirical Research
  • 2.3.5 Human Assets.
  • 2.3.6 Brand Name Capital.
  • 2.3.7 Opportunism and Trust.
  • 2.4 Model of Retailing (Theoretical Review)
  • 2.4.1 Matrix Computational Approach
  • 2.4.2 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis.
  • 2.4.3 main Aspects of Porter’s Five Forces Analysis
  • 2.5 Organizational Performance
  • 2.5.1 Theoretical Review of Retailing and Performance Measures
  • 2.6 Challenge Costs and Benefits of Retailing.
  • 2.6.1 Cost of Retailing
  • 2.6.2 Benefits of Retailing.
  • 2.7 Benefits of Strategic Management to Organization
  • 2.8 Barriers to Sucessful Implemtnation of Strategic Management
  • 2.9 The Role of Organization in Industries
  • 2.10 The Strategic Planner, the Duties and the Strategic Management Development
  • 2.11 An Overview of the Case Study (Cadbury Nigeria Plc)
  • References

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2. Restatement of Research Questions and Hypothesis.
  • 3.2.1 Research Questions
  • 3.2.2 Research Hypothesis
  • 3.3 Characteristics of the Study Population.
  • 3.4 Sampling Design and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Administration of Data Collection Instrument
  • 3.7 Analytical Tools
  • 3.8 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.9 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.10 Limitation of Methodology

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Analysis and Interpretation of Data
  • 4.3 Testing of Hypotheses and Interpretation
  • 4.4 Discussion of Tested Hypotheses

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Retailing is the set of activities that markets products or services to the final consumers for their personal or household use. Businesses used retailing strategies to increase market share and profit and thus enhance firm’s performance. Vertical retailing is very common among larger businesses interested in growing their event further. Vertical strategy occur when business expand into new areas connected with its business processes.

Various strategies exist for each types of retailing designed to increase profits for the company. Market expansion occurs when businesses attempt to expand into area that increase their market share but not necessarily in different areas or even the same products.

Retailing strategy is a vertical strategy where businesses either enter industries in the supply chain ahead of them. In otherword, vertical retailing strategy is a means of guaranting distribution channels for products and services by building relationship with or taking control of distribution.

The intense competition in the market and changing customer preferences has made the retailers’ job difficult and challenging. It was observed that many retail outlets were opened and some of them were closed. This scenario has attracted the attention of many researchers to find solution for the same. During interaction with the organized NLR the need was identified to understand the retail challenges, and organizational performance.

In this paper an attempt has been made to identify the retail challenges and their effect on organizational performance. The remainder of the paper focuses on these issues. The first section focuses on literature survey on retail challenges. The second section focuses on the organizational performance. The third section focuses on research methodology to design and execute research for the same. In the last section the paper ends with discussion, limitation and space for future research. The technique of factor analysis has been applied to classify factors for retail challenges and technique of structural equation modeling has been applied to test hypotheses.

Businesses save money by selling products they creates and free the supplier from the threat or influence of major buyer. Firms tend to add new product to their portfolio as they acquire new knowledge and integrate it with their existing knowledge base particularly in highly dynamic industries. The new knowledge often builds upon the existing knowledge, allowing for improvement in existing products such as high quality and ability to safety consumer’s needs. As a result, this process of knowledge creation and retailing often improves the success of related products in the portfolio. The mix of different knowledge stocks enriches the firm’s capability to offer a greater variety of related products. In so doing, the firm can better satisfy customers’ needs in a manner superior to competitor’s product offerings.

On the other hand, the manufacturing industry remain one of the most critical engines for Economics growth and its performance as a catalyst to transform slow growing and low-value activities to more productive activities that enjoy greater margins and have higher growth prospects but its potential benefits are even greater in present time with rapid technological change and for reaching liberalization and bridge income gap with the industrialized world. (Mike, 2010).

However, vertical retailing implies that fortunes of a business unit are least partly tied to the ability of its in-house supplier or customer (who might be its distribution channel) to complete successfully. Technological changes, changes in product design involving components strategic failures or managerial problems can create a situation in which the in-house supplier is providing a high cost, inferior or inappropriate products and services. Essentially, there are two types of vertical retailing strategy.

Backward retailing strategy exists when firms develop its own sources of raw materials. It occurs when a firm develops into activities which are concerned with the inputs into its current business. (Oyedijo Ade, 2004).

Retailing strategy on the other hand occurs, when a firm is disposing off its own output by gaining ownership or increase control over distributors or retailers.

Increasing number of manufacturers today is pursuing a retailing strategy by establishing web site, distribution outlet e.t.c. to sell their products directly to consumers. Thus, retailing strategy is an issue that concern with the company outputs i.e. the firm goes further retailing in the value chain by creating and providing its own distribution outlets, transportation system, repairs and servicing.

It is argued that increased vertical retailing has resulted in lowering prices of both the unmerged input suppliers and the vertically integrated firm (McAfee1999). Theoretically, literature contends that vertical retailing or coordination will create efficiencies by reducing the transaction costs associated with market exchange. (William Son, 1974). Other most commonly argued benefits of vertical retailing include the reduction of risk, improves supply chain, coordination, captures upstream and downstream profit margins, the ability of integrated firm to innovate and differentiate, it enhances steady near capacity production operation through the creation of ones own dependable channels for pushing product to the end –users, increased efficiency in the exchanged of information and organizational structures and improved market positions of the integrated firm.

Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to empirically examine the effect of vertical retailing on the performance of integrated firms more specifically; we examine the impact of retailing strategy on the performance of Cadbury Nigeria Plc.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Since problems and difficulties are common to all industrial sectors, manufacturing industrial sectors have no immunity. This research work is carried out with the objective to provide solution to problems facing manufacturing industries:

  1. The problem ranges from inadequacy of vertical retailing planning.
  2. Lack of gaining control over distributors,
  3. Unlimited availability of qualified and competent distributors
  4. Weak form of machineries that is put in place to implement retailing strategy,
  5. Lack of enough capital and human resources needed to manage the business.
  6. High cost of market transactions and administration activities within an organization
  7. Lack of stable production desire to gain competitive relative

This cost advantage over rivals through the use of retailing strategy and the enhancement of selling prices to the end users in which the organization can increase the predictability of demand for its outputs through retailing strategy.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To evaluate the effect of retail strategy on organizational performance
  2. To determine how retail strategy affects the attainment of organization goals
  3. To examine the extent in which organization’s retail outlets has increase market share.
  4. To evaluate the effect of an organization servicing department on productivity
  5. To know the effect of lower selling prices to end users on the profitability of manufacturing industry.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does organization’s retail outlets increases market share?
  2. To what extent has servicing department of an organization contributed to productivity?
  3. Does the adoption of retailing strategy helps in the attainment of organization goals?
  4. Does retailing strategy increase the profitability rate of organizational performance?
  5. Does organizational control of sales have any effect on organizational profitability?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. Ho; There is no significant relationship between organization retail outlets and market share.
    Hi: There is significant relationship between organization retail outlet and market share.
  2. Ho: There is no relationship between servicing department of an organizational performance and productivity.
    Hi: There is relationship between servicing department of an organizational performance and productivity.
  3. Ho: There is no correlation between retailing strategy and the attainment of organizational goals.
    Hi: There is correlation between retailing strategy and the attainment of organizational goals.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Retailing strategy as a general strategy helps to position a company to sustain a competitive hedge over its rivals. In many industries, independent sales agent, wholesalers and retailers handled competing brands of the same product having no allegiance to any one company’s brand they tend to push whatever sells and earns them the biggest profits a manufacturer can be frustrated in his attempt to win higher sales and market share or maintain steady, near- capacity production, if it must distribute its products through distributors and/ or retailers who are only half heartedly committed to promoting and marketing its brand as proposed to those of rivals. In such cases, it is advantageous to a manufacturer to integrate retailing into wholesaling or retailing via company own distributorship or chain of retail stores.

Another important relevance of retailing is franking, where the franchisor grants to its franchises the right to use the franchisors name, reputation and business skills at a particular location or area. This helps to lessen the financial burden of swift expansion and so permit rapid growth of the company and help reap the advantages of large scale advertising as well as economics of scale, management and distribution. Business can expand rapidly by franchising because costs and opportunities are spread among many individuals.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of this research work shall be restricted to Cadbury Nigeria Plc. The research work focus on retailing strategy as a tool to achieving lower selling prices to the end users. However, the study was limited by the following:

  1. Time
  2. Finance
  3. Information availability.

1.8 Definition of Terms


This is refers to as the ideas, plans that firm employed to compete successfully against rivals.


This is the transformation of raw materials into finished goods.


It is refers to the end result of activity.


This is the process of combining two or more things in order to work together.


This is the money someone made in business after paying the costs involved.


Is the rate at which a worker or company produces goods and amount produced, compared with how much time and money is needed to produce them.


A person or organization that compete against others especially in business.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study focused on the effect of retailing strategy on organizational performance. This is done by reviewing the works of various renowned researchers, writers and authors on related topics in order to identify areas of convergence and divergence opinion.

Survey research method was employed to the effect. The questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from respondents and statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used in analyzing the data collected and conclusions were arrived at.

However, in this study, we have ascertained the various ways with which we have been able to make the followings;

  1. It was established that organization retail outlets increases market share.
  2. The study revealed that an organization retail outlet increases sales.
  3. The study also revealed that there is a relationship between retailing strategy and organization performance.
  4. The study shows that retailing strategy increases the profitability rate.
  5. The study identified that there is correction between retailing strategy and attainment of organizational goals.
  6. It was established that increasing in retail outlets will allow money benefits to customers.
  7. The study also revealed that servicing department contributed to organization profitability.
  8. It was confirmed that the sales control has impact on organization performance.
  9. It was found out that retailing strategy is a competitive advantage to the organization.
  10. It was also confirmed that manufacturing industry gain better access to the end users through retailing strategy.
  11. It was discovered that retailing strategy contributed positively to productivity of an organization.
  12. The study also revealed that retailing increases entry barriers to potential competitors.

5.2 Conclusion

Existing literature provides clear insights on the importance of retailing strategy and its positive relationship with organizational performance. This study also shows the correlation between retailing and attainment of organizational goals.

Empirical data will be collected through a survey methodology in which each measure and hypothesis will be further tested. Analysis of instrument reliability and validity will employ confirmatory factor analysis and a test of hypothesis will employ structural equation modeling.

This research would be premature without careful consideration of several limitations embedded in this research design. First, this research is cross section study and therefore, firm performance will be measure at the same time as its predators. The effect of retailing strategy on the firm’s performance will obviously take and the ideal research design should incorporate an appropriate time lag.

Finally, in our attempt to examine the relationship between retailing strategy and firm’s performance, we use perceptual measure of operational and business performance.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the summary of the major findings and conclusion drawn from the study, for manufacturing industry to be adequately performed, maximize productivity, ensure its profitability and survival, we proffer the followings;

  1. It is recommended that more retail outlets should be created and effectively managed.
  2. There should be a general overview the organization objectives, this to large extent, will support the strategic plan that will guide the firm in its efficiency.
  3. It is also recommended that the government should intervene in postulating good policies to reduce the problems of manufacturing industry through the supply of needed technology, business information and devices.
  4. They should improve on buyer-seller relationship.
  5. They try as much as possible to lower their cost and improve the quality of their outputs.
  6. Manufacturing firms should effectively utilized available financial resources in generating more sales, enhance profitability level and debt equity worth.
  7. Finally, further and extensive research could be carried out in the future in ascertaining the precise determinants of firms’ performance in other sectors.

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